Grammar:Pronoun chart

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Tovasala's pronoun system is modelled after those of Spanish, Quechua, and Greenlandic, and honours the T–V distinction found in the Romance languages and Latin. Pronouns in the language, as with nouns, decline for case, number (singular/plural), and gender (male/female/neuter). All told, there are 378 possible basic inflections, as demonstrated below.

The possessive forms shown here are of the singular and plural inalienable varieties. For a more comprehensive listing, please see Grammar: Word classes § Possessive.

Root summary

1st 2nd 3rd 4th
Inclusive Exclusive Familiar Formal Subject Object
m- seulm- t- ust- lum- selb- selbem-


Case Suffix
Subject (nom) Ø
Object (acc) -i-
Indirect (dat) -ad-
Possessive (Suffixoid) (oa/au/i)n(g/(o)(b/s)/w)-ind
Reflexive seb*(o/a/é)
Reflexive Emphatic sebl(i)*(o/a/é)


Person Form Gender
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Before vowel
1st (Inclusive) Subject mo ma m(o/a/é) ń-
mos mas més
Object mio mia mié mi(o/a/é) ń-
mios mias miés
Indirect mado mada madé mad(o/a/é) ń-
(to/for) me
mados madas madés
(to/for) us
Possessive Det./Prn. oanime aunime inime *nime ń-
oansime aunsime insime *nsime ń-
Possessive Emph. Det. oanimiruje aunimiruje inimiruje *nimiruje ń-
my own
oansimiruje aunsimiruje insimiruje *nsimiruje ń-
our own
Possessive Adjective oanimi aunimi inimi *nimi ń-
of mine
oansimi aunsimi insimi *nsimi ń-
of ours
Possessive Verb oanimar aunimar inimar
to be mine
oansimar aunsimar insimar
to be ours
Reflexive sebmo sebma sebmé sebm(o/a/é) ń-
sebmos sebmas sebmés
Reflexive Emph. seblimo seblima seblimé seblim(o/a/é) ń-
I myself
seblimos seblimas seblimés
we ourselves
1st (Exclusive) Subject seulmo seulma seulmé seulm(o/a/é) ń-
I alone
seulmos seulmas seulmés
we but not you
Object seulmio seulmia seulmié seulmi(o/a/é) ń-
me alone
seulmios seulmias seulmiés
us but not you
Indirect seulmado seulmada seulmadé seulmad(o/a/é) ń-
(to/for) me alone
seulmados seulmadas seulmadés
(to/for) us but not you
Possessive Det./Prn. oaneume auneume ineume *neume ń-
of mine alone
oanseume aunseume inseume *nseume ń-
our, but not your
Possessive Emph. Det. oaneumiruje auneumiruje ineumiruje *neumiruje ń-
mine alone's own
oanseumiruje aunseumiruje inseumiruje *nseumiruje ń-
our, but not your own
Possessive Adjective oaneumi auneumi ineumi *neumi ń-
of mine alone
oanseumi aunseumi inseumi *nseumi ń-
of ours but not yours
Possessive Verb oaneumar auneumar ineumar
to be mine alone
oanseumar aunseumar inseumar
to be ours but not yours
Reflexive sësseulmo sësseulma sësseulmé sësseulm(o/a/é) ń-
myself alone
sësseulmos sësseulmas sësseulmés
ourselves but not you
Reflexive Emph. sebliseulmo sebliseulma sebliseulmé sebliseulm(o/a/é) ń-
I myself alone
sebliseulmos sebliseulmas sebliseulmés
we ourselves but not you
2nd (Familiar) Subject to ta t(o/a/é) ń-
tos tas tés
Object tio tia tié ti(o/a/é) ń-
tios tias tiés
Indirect tado tada tadé tad(o/a/é) ń-
(to/for) you
tados tadas tadés
(to/for) you
Possessive Det./Prn. oanite aunite inite *nite ń-
oansite aunsite insite *nsite ń-
Possessive Emph. Det. oanitiruje aunitiruje initiruje *nitiruje ń-
your own
oansitiruje aunsitiruje insitiruje *nsitiruje ń-
your own
Possessive Adjective oaniti auniti initi *niti ń-
of yours
oansiti aunsiti insiti *nsiti ń-
of yours
Possessive Verb oanitar aunitar initar
to be yours
oansitar aunsitar insitar
to be yours
Reflexive sebto sebta sebté sebt(o/a/é) ń-
sebtos sebtas sebtés
Reflexive Emph. seblito seblita seblité seblit(o/a/é) ń-
you yourself
seblitos seblitas seblités
you yourselves
2nd (Formal) Subject usto usta usté ust(o/a/é) ń-
ustos ustas ustés
Object ustio ustia ustié usti(o/a/é) ń-
ustios ustias ustiés
Indirect ustado ustada ustadé ustad(o/a/é) ń-
(to/for) you
ustados ustadas ustadés
(to/for) you
Possessive Det./Prn. oanute aunute inute *nute ń-
oansute aunsute insute *nsute ń-
Possessive Emph. Det. oanutiruje aunutiruje inutiruje *nutiruje ń-
your own
oansutiruje aunsutiruje insutiruje *nsutiruje ń-
your own
Possessive Adjective oanuti aunuti inuti *nuti ń-
of yours
oansuti aunsuti insuti *nsuti ń-
of yours
Possessive Verb oanutar aunutar inutar
to be yours
oansutar aunsutar insutar
to be yours
Reflexive sebusto sebusta sebusté sebust(o/a/é) ń-
sebustos sebustas sebustés
Reflexive Emph. seblusto seblusta seblusté seblust(o/a/é) ń-
you yourself
seblustos seblustas seblustés
you yourselves
3rd Subject lumo luma lumé lum(o/a/é) ń-
he she it / they he / she / it / they
lumos lumas lumés
Object lumio lumia lumié lumi(o/a/é) ń-
him her it / them him / her / it / them
lumios lumias lumiés
Indirect lumado lumada lumadé lumad(o/a/é) ń-
(to/for) him (to/for) her (to/for) it / (to/for) them (to/for) him / her / it / them
lumados lumadas lumadés
(to/for) them
Possessive Det./Prn. oanile aunile inile *nile ń-
his her(s) its (own) / their(s) his / her(s) / its (own) / their(s)
oansile aunsile insile *nsile ń-
Possessive Emph. Det. oaniliruje auniliruje iniliruje *niliruje ń-
his own her own its own / their own his own / her own / its own / their own
oansiliruje aunsiliruje insiliruje *nsiliruje ń-
their own
Possessive Adjective oanili aunili inili *nili ń-
of his of hers of its own / of theirs of his / hers / its own / theirs
oansili aunsili insili *nsili ń-
of theirs
Possessive Verb oanilar aunilar inilar
to be his to be hers to be its own / to be theirs to be his / hers / its own / theirs
oansilar aunsilar insilar
to be theirs
Reflexive seblumo sebluma seblumé seblum(o/a/é) ń-
himself herself itself / themselves himself / herself / itself / themselves
seblumos seblumas seblumés
Reflexive Emph. seblilumo sebliluma seblilumé seblilum(o/a/é) ń-
he himself she herself it itself / they themselves he himself / she herself / it itself / they themselves
seblilumos seblilumas seblilumés
they themselves
4th (Subject) Subject selbo selba selbé selb(o/a/é) ń-
the previous subject
selbos selbas selbés
the previous subjects
Object selbio selbia selbié selbi(o/a/é) ń-
the previous subject
selbios selbias selbiés
the previous subjects
Indirect selbado selbada selbadé selbad(o/a/é) ń-
(to/for) the previous subject
selbados selbadas selbadés
(to/for) the previous subjects
Possessive Det./Prn. oanealbe aunealbe inealbe *nealbe ń-
the previous subject's
oansealbe aunsealbe insealbe *nsealbe ń-
the previous subjects'
Possessive Emph. Det. oanealbiruje aunealbiruje inealbiruje *nealbiruje ń-
the previous subject's own
oansealbiruje aunsealbiruje insealbiruje *nsealbiruje ń-
the previous subjects' own
Possessive Adjective oanealbi aunealbi inealbi *nealbi ń-
of the previous subject's
oansealbi aunsealbi insealbi *nsealbi ń-
of the previous subjects'
Possessive Verb oanealbar aunealbar inealbar
to be the previous subject's
oansealbar aunsealbar insealbar
to be the previous subjects'
Reflexive sësselbo sësselba sësselbé sësselb(o/a/é) ń-
sësselbos sësselbas sësselbés
Reflexive Emph. sebliselbo sebliselba sebliselbé sebliselb(o/a/é) ń-
the previous subject itself
sebliselbos sebliselbas sebliselbés
the previous subjects themselves
4th (Object) Subject selbemo selbema selbème selbem(o/a)/
selbème ń-
the previous object
selbemos selbemas selbèmes
the previous objects
Object selbemio selbemia selbemie selbemi(o/a/e) ń-
the previous object
selbemios selbemias selbemies
the previous objects
Indirect selbemado selbemada selbemade selbemad(o/a/e) ń-
(to/for) the previous object
selbemados selbemadas selbemades
(to/for) the previous objects
Possessive Det./Prn. oanealbème aunealbème inealbème *nealbème ń-
the previous object's
oansealbème aunsealbème insealbème *nsealbème ń-
the previous objects'
Possessive Emph. Det. oanealbemiruje aunealbemiruje inealbemiruje *nealbemiruje ń-
the previous object's own
oansealbemiruje aunsealbemiruje insealbemiruje *nsealbemiruje ń-
the previous objects' own
Possessive Adjective oanealbemi aunealbemi inealbemi *nealbemi ń-
of the previous object's
oansealbemi aunsealbemi insealbemi *nsealbemi ń-
of the previous objects'
Possessive Verb oanealbemar aunealbemar inealbemar
to be the previous object's
oansealbemar aunsealbemar insealbemar
to be the previous objects'
Reflexive sësselbemo sësselbema sësselbème sësselbem(o/a)/
sësselbème ń-
sësselbemos sësselbemas sësselbèmes
Reflexive Emph. sebliselbemo sebliselbema sebliselbème sebliselbem(o/a)/
sebliselbème ń-
the previous object itself
sebliselbemos sebliselbemas sebliselbèmes
the previous objects themselves