Grammar:Special classes

From Constant Noble
Jump to navigation Jump to search
◀ Word classes Grammar of Tovasala:
Special classes
Syntax ▶

(7)

Numbers

Cardinal

Numbers in Tovasala are called shumèles; numerals, shumauftes; and number words, shumoabes. The Tovasala number system is akin to those of Romance languages.

In the table below, the numbers are listed by their morphemic forms. (Coloured rows indicate roots that are left unchanged before smaller values in complex numbers.)

# Tovasala English
Multiplicative
(d × n)
Additive
(dx + n)
0 naul naul- zero
¼ kerov keroiz- a quarter
½ semiv semoiz- one half
1 suod one
2 touv two
3 trig three
4 kuãrt four
5 kuind five
6 siez six
7 sep seven
8 noalt eight
9 nev nine
10 dey deiz- ten
20 hogel hogoiz- twenty
100 sent seiz- hundred
1,000 kilog kiloiz- (below 1,000,000) thousand
kilog- (above 1,000,000)
10,000 ribual riboiz- ten thousand; a myriad
100,000 lakh lakoiz- one hundred thousand; lakh (India)
1,000,000 suodard suodard- million
saibream saibroiz-
10,000,000 kroar kroaloiz- ten million; crore (India)
100,000,000 yokul yokoiz- one hundred million
1,000,000,000 kilogard kilogard- billion
pagold pagoiz-
1,000,000,000,000 terand terand- trillion
1 × 1015 kïlotterand kïlotterand- quadrillion
1 × 1018 exand exand- quintillion
1 × 1021 kilogexand kilogexand- sextillion
1 × 1024 yotand yotand- septillion
1 × 1027 kilogyotand kilogyotand- octillion
1 × 1030 kuetand kuetand- nonillion
1 × 1033 kïlokkuetand kïlokkuetand- decillion

Tovasala has two words each for values of 10 to the powers of 1 through 8; hyphens separate words for higher values like saibreame (1,000,000), pagolde (1,000,000,000), and so forth. This helps distinguish a combination like kuinddeiśsèpe (57) from kuinddeysèpe (350; literally "fifty sevens"/50 × 7).

The number system is addition- and multiple-based, resulting in the likes of deiśsuode (11), deiśtouve (12), deiśtrige (13), deiśkuinde (15), touɗdèye (20), touɗdeiśsuode (21), trïddèye (30), küarddèye (40), kuinddèye (50), sepdeiśnoalte (78), seiśtouɗdeiśnève (129), kuinseiśtrïddeiśtrige (533), touƙkïloiddeiśsieze (2016), kuinddeiśtrïkkiloge (53,000), seiśküarddeykiloge (140,000), and so forth. Complex numbers such as saibream-touƒseiśtrïddeiśküarkkilog-kuinseiśsïeddeiśsèpe (1,234,567) are hyphenated.

Ordinal

Ordinal forms are denoted by the -tem suffix, as in süottemi (first/1st), touƒtemi (second/2nd), trïttemi (third/3rd), deiśsieśtemi (sixteenth/16th), touɗdeiśneƒtemi (twenty-ninth/29th), and senttemi (hundredth/100th). Values up to 31st (trïddeiśsüottème) are used in expressing simple calendar dates.

Fractional

Fractions are expressed with the -triem suffix, as in touƒtrieme (one half/½), trïttrieme (one third/⅓), kuãrttrieme (a quarter/¼), noalttrieme (one eight/⅛), deytrieme (a tenth / 1/10), touɗdeiśkuintrieme (a twenty-fifth / 1/25), and senttrieme (a hundredth / 1/100). If higher than one, then the dividend precedes the divisor in forms such as touve trïttriemi (two-thirds/⅔), trige kuãrttriemi (three-quarters/¾), kuinde noalttriemi (five-eighths/⅝), sèpe deytriemi (seven-tenths / 7/10), deiśtouve touɗdeiśneƒtriemi (twelve in 29 / 12/29), and saibreamtrieme (a millionth; 1/1,000,000). In the case of "sesquitertia" (an obsolete term for the 4:3 ratio), the fraction is converted into a whole word (kuãrtraśtrïttrieme = 4 × ⅓).

Proximal

Estimated and approximate values are expressed with the -tam suffix, most notably in deuvame (a dozen; about twelve). Other examples include senttame (about 100), trïddeykïlottame (some 30,000), and saibreamtame (roughly a million).

The -upot suffix, meaning "near(ly)"/"almost"/"close to" in non-spatial expressions, is also used for numbers: küarddeyupote (nearly 40), deiśkuinsentupote (almost 150), sieśkilogupote (close to 6,000).

Decimal

Decimals can either be expressed with single numbers, or in fractions denoted by 10 to the nth power (10n). Thus, a number such as 0.421876 can be written as either naul point kuãrt-touv-suod-noalt-sep-siez (as in English), or küarsseiśtouɗdeiśsüokkilog-nöalsseiśsepdeiśsieze saibreamtriemi (421,876/1,000,000). Similarly, 4.21876 = kuãrt point touv-suod-noalt-sep-siez or kuãrte nend deiśsüokkilog-nöalsseiśsepdeiśsieze sënkkïlottriemi (421,876/100,000), and 18.6357 = deiśnoalte nend siez-trig-kuind-sep or seiśnöalddeiśsieśkilog-trïsseiśkuinddeiśsèpe deykïlottriemi (186,357/10,000).

Serial

As in English, the dictation of years is split between the first and last duos of numbers, so that 1789 becomes deiśsèpe nöalddeiśnève; 1854, deiśnoalte kuinddeiśkuãrte; and 1945, deiśnève küarddeiśkuinde. If referring to 2000 or later, then something like 2006 can be interpreted as either touƙkiloiśsieze or touɗdèye naul-siez. Similarly, 2016 becomes touƙkïloiddeiśsieze or touɗdèye deiśsieze, and 2020 = touƙkïloittouɗdèye or touɗdèye-touɗdèye. (The last example is a rare example of reduplication in Tovasala.)

Telephone numbers are also recited by their digits. For example, 555-7824 = kuind-kuind-kuind sep-noalt-touv-kuãrt, and 867-5309 = noalt-siez-sep kuind-trig-naul-nev.

Multiplicative

Tovasala uses the -raz suffixoid to denote multiples of given numbers. It forms multiples with an -e, such as suodrazé (single); touvrazé (double); trigrazé (triple); kuãrtrazé (quadruple); kuindrazé (quintuple); and deyrazé (decuple). With -u, it corresponds to English "x-fold" or "times x", as in touvrazu (twice); kuãrtrazu (fourfold, times four); seprazu (sevenfold); noaltrazu (eightfold); deyrazu (tenfold); trïddeyrazu (thirty-fold); and sepdeiśseprazu (seventy-sevenfold).

Symbols

Tovasala's words for arithmetic operators are nend (plus/+), moin (minus/-), raz (times/×), puem (divided by/÷), and aibem (equal/=).

Comparison with source languages

From 0 to 10
Coloured cells indicate etymons.
Tovasala English French Spanish Italian Latin Hungarian Tanimbili
naule zero
(null)
zéro cero zero zerum
(nullus)
zéró ?
suode one un uno uno ūnus
ūna
ūnum
egy suo
touve two deux dos due duo kettő mbuyu
trige three trois tres tre trēs három mbokwo
kuãrte four
(quart[er])
quatre cuatro quattro quattuor
(quārtus)
négy ma:pio
kuinde five cinq cinco cinque quīnque
(quīntus)
öt kavili
sieze six six seis sei sex hat kavilisuo
sèpe seven sept siete sette septem hét suovio
noalte eight huit ocho otto octo nyolc veviro
nève nine neuf nueve nove novem kilenc verevepio
dèye ten dix diez dieci decem tíz verengalu

Horology

Dates

Days and months

Words for days of the week, and months of the year, are formed by placing diēm (week) or masin (month) after the attribute they are named for.

Days
  • Diēɗdième (Sunday)
  • Loundième (Monday)
  • Hilddième (Tuesday)
  • Mẽrkkhième (Wednesday)
  • Joaldième (Thursday)
  • Froldième (Friday)
  • Brouddième (Saturday)
Months
  • Premmasine (January)
  • Duermasine (February)
  • Suertmasine (March)
  • Paummasine (April)
  • Troavmasine (May)
  • Fraulmasine (June)
  • Nâymasine (July)
  • Vinkmasine (August)
  • Eskolmasine (September)
  • Noulmasine (October)
  • Dolchmasine (November)
  • Fuingmasine (December)

Notation

Numerical dates are written in either British (29/9/2016) or American (9/29/2016) form, and are fully written out in this matter: touɗdeiśneƒtème der Eskolmasine touƙkïloiddeiśsiezi (the 29th of September 2016).

Time

Unit roots

Tovasala English
Duration Gap (...ago/later) Unit
sekit sekrol second
minel minrol minute
hauril haurol hour
diēm derol day
sepem seperl week
touƒsepem touƒseperl fortnight
masin masprol month
anov anoþprol year
deyanov deyanoþprol decade
sentanov sentanoþprol century
kiloganov kiloganoþprol millennium
saibreamanov saibreamanoþprol Mya

Expression

Stating exact hours in Tovasala involves either the word hauril or the time of day (frod for a.m., sẽrt for p.m.), followed by the hour number. Examples include haurilsuode (one o'clock), hauriltrige (three o'clock), frodsieze (6 a.m.), sẽrtnoalte (8 p.m.), and sẽrtthèye (10 p.m.). Noon (12 p.m.) translates to mẽrkitrieme (literally "middle daypart"), and midnight (12 a.m.) to mẽrkochieme ("middle of the night").

Minute numbers before or after hours precede the hour number and prev/aprev: deiśsèpe siezaprevi (17 after 6; 6:17), touɗdeiśkuinde frodküarpprevi (25 to 4 in the morning; 3:35 a.m.), trige sẽrtnöalpprevi (three till eight in the night; 7:57 p.m.). Quarter- and half-hours are expressed with the fractional numerals: semoiśkuãrte (half past four; 4:30), frodkeroiśsuode (quarter past one in the morning; 1:15 a.m.), sẽrtkerovmoindeiśsuode (quarter to eleven at night; 10:45 p.m.).

To translate "ago" or "later", Tovasala uses a set of roots formed with the time units plus prol (gap), followed by prev or aprev: Touɗdeiśnöaldderolaprevu (28 Days Later), Kuarthogoiśsepanoþprolprevu ("Fourscore and seven years ago...").

Interrogatives

All interrogative words in Tovasala begin with the letter k, and correspond to a core morpheme.

Root Parent morpheme English meaning Concept
kesen esen what/which thing
kiēn -iēn who person
kiēni- -iēn whom person
kad ad where(by) location-related
kaup aup whither location-related
kint int wherein location-related
kesil esil whence location-related
kaurad maurad when time
kesmaurv maurv at what time time (on a clock)
kovaurd povaurd why reason
kovaurduit povaurd wherefore specific reason
kemek emek how, wherein manner
kesemek emek whereby, wherewith means, instrument
kivad nivad how extent
klaskem laskem how much; how many amount, quality
kesaum saum how much; how many sum, total
kasrem masrem how much cost

Correlatives

With Esperanto, L.L. Zamenhof managed to compile a table of correlatives. Along with the original words (in italics), the Tovasala equivalents are presented in this replica.

Concept Category
Question (?) Indication
(this/that)
Indefinite
(some)
Universal
(each/every)
Negative
(no/not)
Quality kesen
kia
(what)
-asiem
tia
(what/such a...!)
leutun
ia
(some kind of)
toutēsen
ĉia
(every kind)
naulēsen
nenia
(no kind of)
Reason kovaurd
kial
(why)
ẽrgim
tial
(therefore, so)
unpovaurd
ial
(for some reason)
töurpovaurd
ĉial
(for all reasons)
naulpovaurd
nenial
(for no reason)
Time kaurad
kiam
(when)
puiwob
tiam
(then)
oguil
iam
(sometime)
toutwob
ĉiam
(always)
naulwob
neniam
(never)
Place kad
kie
(where)
hinad/hanad
tie
(here/there)
unad
ie
(somewhere)
toutad
ĉie'
(everywhere)
naulad
nenie
(nowhere)
Manner kemek
kiel
(how)
esinemek
tiel
(thus)
unemek
iel
(somehow)
toutemek
ĉiel
(in every way)
naulemek
neniel
(in no way; no-how)
Association ineak
kies
(whose)
esinozi/esanozi
ties
(this/that one's)
unozi
ies
(someone's)
toutozi
ĉies
(everyone's)
naulozi
nenies
(no one's)
Thing kesen
kio
(what)
esin/esan
tio
(this/that)
esengun
io
(something)
toutēsen
ĉio
(everything)
naulēsen
nenio
(nothing)
Amount kesaum
kiom
(how much)
plũrịmēsan
tiom
(that much)
un
iom
(some)
tout
ĉiom
(all of it)
naul
neniom
(none)
Individual kiēn
kiu
(who)
tauwesin/tauwesan
tiu
(this/that one)
tauwun
iu
(someone)
touttauw
ĉiu
(everyone)
naultauw
neniu
(no one)

Tovasala also has its own correlative hierachy, shown below:

Concept Deixis Pronoun Parent morpheme(s)
Proximal Medial Distant Question (?) Relative
Distance proxim
near
proxam
far
proxaum
beyond
kesproxem
how far
jesproxem
how far
proxem
Where (Location) hinad
here
hanad
there
haunad
yonder
kad
where
jad
where
(h*n|-)ad
What (Subject/Object) esin
this
esan
that
esaun
yon
kesen
what
jesen
what
es*n
Who (Person) tauwesin
this one
tauwesan
that one
tauwesaun
yon one
kiēn
who
jiēn
who
tauw/-iēn
When (Time) nourob
now
puiwob
then
puengob
far back
kaurad
when
jaurad
when
nourob/puiwob/puengob/maurad
Why (Reason/Cause) esinpovaurd
this reason
esanpovaurd
that reason
esaunpovaurd
yon reason
kovaurd
why
jovaurd
why
povaurd
How (Manner/Method/Way) esinēmek
this way
esanēmek
that way
esaunēmek
yon way
kemek
how
jemek
how
emek

Determiners

As with nouns, all words classified as determiners end in -o, -a, or -e, and adhere to the elision rules.

  • Both articles (-l- and -un-)
  • Demonstratives (esine/esane [this/that], esaune [yon])
  • Possessive pronouns (e.g. inim, init, inil)
  • Numerals before nouns (suode, touve, trige, kuãrte, kuinde, noalte, dèye, kuinddèye, sente, kiloge, suodarde/saibreame)
  • Quantifiers (kuilibe [any], paulime [much/many], peuve [few], plũrịme [several], une [some/a certain...], -ous- [both], toute [every/all])
  • Distributive words (aivé [each])
  • Interrogatives kesène and ineake
  • Relative pronouns jesène and ineaje

Affects

Several Tovasala suffixes and suffixoids serve as affects to regular roots. Derivations including affects inherit the original word class of their parent roots in their canonical forms.

Size

  • Diminutive -et, which denotes miniature/dwarf forms of objects. Examples include ekuinde (horse) → ekuindète (pony); aumbra (woman) → aumbreta (dwarfette/midget/munchkin); and toapé (stone) → toapète (pebble). -et corresponds to the impersonal free root aubịm- (small).
  • Medial -ead, which indicates medium-sized objects. Commonly used with clothes and footwear-related roots, as in chamezeade (medium shirt); hoaseneade (medium pants); and joadeades (medium shoes). Corresponds to the position-specific mẽrk- (middle/central), free root aubam-, and location-specific prolad- (between).
  • Augmentative -ard, which indicates large objects. Found in such derivations as plovarda (big boat = ship), laufarde (big air = atmosphere), toaparde (large stone = rock), and doarmiēnarde (sleeping giant); corresponds to free roots aubaum- (size; impersonal) and eushel- (age). In Tovasala, aubaumtauwe (someone who is big in size), tuergarde (big creature) and aumbrarde (big human) are synonyms for English "giant".

Age

  • Nascent -eb, which denotes newborn/baby forms of creatures and plants: nèke (cat) → nekèbe (baby kitten); fazole (bean) → fazolèbe (bean sprout); aumbra (woman) → aumbreba (baby girl).
  • Juvenile -ed, which denotes young forms of creatures and plants. Examples include nèke (cat) → nekède (kitten); nâye (dog) → nâyède (puppy); aumbra (woman) → aumbreda (girl); and tuere (creature) → tuerède (cub/whelp). -ed always follows -et in forms such as ekuindetède (young pony).
  • Geriatric -eld, which denotes senior/elder creatures and old objects/customs: aumbra (woman) → aumbrelda (old woman); kualda (queen) → kualdelda (old queen); prauskũro (squirrel) → prauskũreldo (old squirrel); strubaine (building) → strubainelde (old building); besnèle (custom) → besneŕelde (tradition).

Suffixoids -eshoand (adolescent/teenager) and -eushel (adult/mature) can also be appended to sentient roots, but are not encountered as often.

Focus

  • -(b)uit is used as a semantic differentiator (veyar = see/veybuitar = stare; ludes nend luduites = games and sports), while -iruj and -eriem signify emphasis (Aigirujjurata = She really did it; Guertile beleriemat = The garden is very beautiful). -evoir translates to English "even" (Tayeŕgepleriemisimevoir = Even we can type very well).

Personal

Tovasala boasts eleven personal particles, each with different levels of intensity:

  • Pejorative -yag, the strongest and most intensive, is a profanity derived from Japanese やがる (yagaru); it chiefly translates to the F-word in English.
  • Slightly weaker in impact but still impolite, -yoig ("g[...]n") and -toig ("d[...]", "h[...] of a...", "b[...]d") stand in for various curse words in English, French, Spanish, and other languages.
  • -toik, which substitutes the above three in polite speech, translates variously to "darn", "dang", "doggone", and "heck of a..."; its etymon is Vietnamese tối kiến ("stupid idea").
  • Three epithets of contempt—-bouch (literally "rotten"), -eskom (meaning "trash"/"garbage"/"rubbish"), and -ubel ("shoddy"/"of poor/low quality")—occasionally substitute the first four in family-friendly speech. Another substitute is -uzaum, or "pitiful"/"poor little...".
  • -uvam indicates that the subject is outstanding, exceptional, impressive, high-class, or brilliant in quality or behaviour.
  • Affectionate marker -yoab takes on various meanings, from "dear", "love", "honey", "sweetheart", and "cutie" in English, to "cher/chère" in French; the similar -yoaf stands for "attractive"/"hot".
◀ Word classes Grammar of Tovasala:
Special classes
Syntax ▶

(7)