Grammar:Stem change chart

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Summary of morpheme mutation in Tovasala
Key: L = Letter, C = Consonant, V = Vowel, D = Diphthong


Type Morphemes Description
T1a i -e after Cl/Cr / gm/gn / sm/sn, and other select roots; unchanged otherwise (Neuter Nouns)
T1a ii -o/-a No changes (Masculine/Feminine)
T1a iii -Ṿ -ọ or -ạ termison after D[Ptn.]; otherwise -oḷ/-aḷ before next morpheme, or -oṛ/-aṛ before morpheme with l as second or later letter (Neuter Underdots)
T1b -i/-u No changes (Adjectives/Adverbs)
T1c -s No changes (Plurals); add only after T1a
T2a -ar No changes (Infinitive). If gendered, add T1a ii
T2b -im/-eum / -it/-ut / -at / -ealb/-ealbem / -ea(n)k/-ea(n)j -it-ot after ch or t; -ut-ump after sl/-ulb after sm; unchanged otherwise (Indicatives). If dual, precede with -isiv; if plural, -is. If gendered, add T1a ii
T2c -(as)ant -änC before b/d/f/g/j/k/p/s/v/y/z; -ä(sa)nss before l/m/n; unchanged otherwise (Progressive/Continuative). If dual, precede with -isiv; if plural, -is (Continuative Plural = -iyasant-ibasant [...are still doing] after y). If in noun/adjective form, add T1a/T1b
T2d i -aik -aikọr before b/d/f/g/j/p/v; unchanged otherwise (Conditional/Subjunctive). If dual, precede with -isiv; if plural, -is. If in noun/adjective form, add T1a/T1b
(U)T2d ii -aikuit See U1a i a (Conditional/Subjunctive: Had Better). If dual, precede with -isiv; if plural, -is. If in noun/adjective form, add T1a/T1b
T2e -ait No changes (Imperative)
T3 -ts* -Cs* after b/d/k/m; -jis* after j; unchanged otherwise (Question Particles). If gendered, add T1a ii



Pattern Morphemes Description Examples
R1 d* th* after t; kh* after k diēmthiēm/khiēm
R2 t* dh* after d; jh* after j tendhen/jhen
TN -lurip/-lur/-lurel/-lureng/-lir/-luvir
  • -C* after d/j/lm/ln/Vm/Vn/rm/rn/w/x/y
  • -h* after ch or h
  • -lur*-uld*/-lir-ild after Cr
  • -lurel-lurenn before morphemes where (L >= 2) = l
  • First l dropped after Cl/gm/gn/sm/sn or uniliteral v- (go)
  • Unchanged otherwise (Tenses)
See Grammar: Word classes/Verbs § Conjugation models
D Varies by original pattern Use of T1a iii overrides regular pattern rules (Mostly internationally recognised roots, but some others are determined on a case-to-case basis)
QI/QR (k/j)√ Ces before ch/h/k/l/m/n/p/t/w; Ce before b/d/f/g/j/s/v/y/z; k or je before r; C before vowels; first letter replaced in maurad (at the time)/povaurd (reason)/masrem (cost) (Interrogative/Relative)
  • potal (instead of) → kespotal (instead of what?)
  • povaurd (reason) → kovaurd (what reason; why?)
  • esen (thing) → kesène (what/which?)
  • ad (to/at) → kad (to what/at what spot; where?)
  • raz (times/×) → kraz (how many times?)/jeraz (how many times)


Pattern Morphemes Description Examples
1a i a *(a/i/o/u(C))(d/p/t/w/y) *wb/*yb before *ui; unchanged otherwise urup (organ); sẽrt (late); nây (dog)
1a i b *nd *n before (a/e/i/o)d or consonants other than d/h/l/m/r/w; *nng before l-initial root or h/m; unchanged before -l clitic or other morphemes gaund + adgaunad (at a relative); gaund + truzgauntruz (family)
1a i c tueld tuel before Vd or consonants other than d/h/r/w; unchanged otherwise (Verb: Give Birth) tueld + aidtuelaid (born)
1a ii a *m *mb before Vm; unchanged otherwise (unless 1a ii b or 1d) molom + emekmolombemek (with the help of the ointment)
1a ii b anim- animen- before d/*r; animb- before emek or ui*; animer- before all other roots; unchanged before , -iebe, -erije, -ade, &c. plus complex plurals and case suffixoids (Noun: Anime)
1a iii a *(a/au/ea/i/o/oa/ou)n / -eun *Vng before aun/ean/in/oan/oun; *mmb before -iēn/ui*; unchanged otherwise (unless 1d) mobilun + intmobilungint (in a car); Nihaun + iēnNihaummbiēn (Japanese person)
1a iii b -un- -une(s) after consonant-initial roots; un' before vowel-initial roots; une(s) before consonant-initial imports; un'/unes before vowel-initial imports (indf — a/an/some). If followed by a case, use 1a iii a
  • mobilune(s) (a car/some cars)
  • traseangune(s) (a sewer/some sewers)
  • un'abechude(s) (an alphabet/some alphabets)
  • un'animé/unes animé (an anime/some anime)
  • une Biden (a Biden relative)
1b i *CVl *Vŕ before morphemes with l as second or later letter; *Vlb before ui*; unchanged otherwise, or see 1b ii tanultanuŕ (study)
1b ii *rVl *rVnn before morphemes with l as second or later letter; *rVlb before ui*; unchanged otherwise, or use 2b i/2b ii porul + ealbporunnealb (sbj defines); porul + tanulporunntanul (lexicology)
1b iii nal- Unchanged before l, and (unless second or later letter is l) b, h, or vowels; otherwise naŕ- (neg — Negation)
  • nal + bivnalbiv- (does not exist)
  • nal + leznallez- (does not read)
  • nal + erivnaleriv- (does not remove)
  • nal + vnaŕv- (does not go)
  • nal + boul-naŕboul- (does not need)
1b iv *Cl *Cŕi (consonant-initial) or *Cŕ (vowel-initial) before morphemes with l as second or later letter; *Cli before rest of consonant-initials; unchanged otherwise, or see 1b iv bouklboukŕi/boukŕ/boukli (shield)
1b v *rl *rŕ before morphemes with l as second or later letter; *rlb before ui*; unchanged otherwise nẽrlnẽrŕ (teach); parlparŕ (speak)
1c i a *Vr *Vrb before Vr*/ui*; unchanged otherwise todir + erivattodirberivat (sbj deletes analyses)
1c i b noshor Unchanged if preceded by r, ś, w, x, or another n; oshor after all other letters in compounds; *oshorg before Vr*/ui* (Suffixoid: -core) ouram + noshorouramoshor (cottagecore)
1c ii *Cr *Cri before consonants; *Crin before Vr* (but not aur); *Crob before ui*; unchanged otherwise loutrloutri (otter)
1d *gm/*gn / *sm/*sn *CCi before consonants; *CCob before ui*; unchanged otherwise
  • signsigni (swan)
  • giesmgiesmi (sing)
1e i *sp *spoṛ before b/ch/d/f/g/j/k/s/v/z; *spo before m/n; unchanged otherwise kloasp + kuemkloaspoṛkuem (...than/as the skunk); kloasp + nandkloasponand (as a skunk)
1e ii *st *stoṛ before s/z; *sor before d/f/g/j/v; *ss before b/ch/h/k/l/m/n/p; unchanged otherwise fest + potalfesorpotal (instead of the party)
1f i *ft/*pt *Ctoṛ before b/ch/d/f/g/j/k/m/n/p/v; unchanged otherwise boft + kuemboftoṛkuem (...than/as weaving)
1f ii *kt *ktoṛ before b/ch/d/f/g/j/k/p/v; unchanged otherwise prêfekt + kuemprêfektoṛkuem (...than/as the prefect)
1g i -l- -lé(s) after b/f/g/k/l/p/r/v and -ous in consonant-initial forms; -ile(s) after ch/d/h/j/m/n/t/w/y/z; l' before vowels; le(s)/louse before consonant-initial imports and underdotted terms; l'/lous'/les before animé and vowel-initial imports (def — the)
  • taublé(s) (the tub[s])
  • houbenouslé (the two highways)
  • mobil(ous)lé(s) (the car[s]/the two cars)
  • l'obène(s)/l'obenouse (the house[s]/the two houses)
  • l'èbe(s)/l'ebouse (the baby/babies; the two babies)
  • le(s)/louse kasinọ (the casino[s]/the two casinos)
  • le(s)/louse guãrbạ (the guava[s]/the two guavas)
  • le(s)/louse Biden (Biden, the President/the Biden family/the two Biden relatives)
  • l'animé/lous'animé/les animé (the anime/the two anime)
1g ii m- mi before consonants; unchanged before vowels. See also 9d ii (1 — I/we/me/us) miprin (about me); mesil (from/by me)
1g iii t- ti before consonants; unchanged before vowels, r, or w (2.fam — you) tiprin (about you); tesil (from/by you)
1g iv v- vi before consonants; unchanged before vowels, r, or w (Verb: Go) vipotal (instead of going); varde (voyage)
2a i a *Ce(d/p/t/w/y) *èC before -e; unchanged otherwise edède (young); ekuindetekuindète (pony); teytèye (tea)
2a i b i *ie(d/p/t/y) See 1a i a labritoriete (laboratory)
2a i b ii *iē(d/p/t/w/y) *ièC before -e; unchanged otherwise
2a i c *ue(d/p/t/w/y) No changes puey (coil); duet (digit)
2a ii a *Cem *Cèm before -e; otherwise 1a ii a süottem + emeksüottembemek (with the help of the first one); süottemsüottème (the first one)
2a ii b i *iem See 1a ii a ditrieme (time of day)
2a ii b ii *iēm *ièm before -e; otherwise 1a ii a dīemdième (day)
2a ii c *uem See 1a ii a puem (divided by)
2a iii a i *Cen *Cèn before -e; otherwise 1a iii a oben + intobengint (in the house); obenobène (house)
2a iii a ii tousen Contracted to -ous- in dual nouns (du — Dual Interfix) fraul (spouse) + tousenfraultousène (married couple) → fraulouse (husband and wife)
2a iii b -iēn -ièn before -e; otherwise 1a iii a (Personal Agent Nouns) biviēnbiviène (being)
2a iii c i *uen See 1a iii a tuen (full/complete)
2a iii c ii *uēn *uèn before -e; otherwise 1a iii a keruēnkeruène (caravan)
2b i *Cel *Cèl before -e; otherwise 1b i or 2b ii boursel (purse) → boursèle; boursel + eld (old) → bourseŕeld (old purse)
2b ii *rel *rèl before -e; *renn before morphemes where (L >= 2) = l; rëC before consonant; unchanged otherwise astrelastrenn/astrèle (star); astrel + lorgastrellorg (searching for the stars)
2b iii a *iel *ieŕ before morphemes where (L >= 2) = l; *ielb before ui*; *iennd before d; unchanged otherwise amielamieŕ (substance)
2b iii b *iēl *ièl before -e; *iērn before morphemes where (L >= 2) = l; *iēlb before ui*; unchanged otherwise ziēlzièle/ziērn- (sky/Heaven)
2b iv a *uel *ueŕ before morphemes where (L >= 2) = l; *uelb before ui*; unchanged otherwise vuelvueŕ (to run)
2b iv b *uēl *uèl before -e; *uērn before morphemes where (L >= 2) = l; *uēlb before ui*; unchanged otherwise feuēlfeuèle/feuērn- (fuel)
2c i a i *Cer *Cèr before -e; otherwise 1c i a voaser + erivvoaserberiv- (removing letters); voasère (letter)
2c i a ii ver- No changes (rvt)
2c i a iii *Cẽr See 1c i a kansẽr + erivkansẽrberiv- (removing cancer); kansẽre (cancer)
2c i b i *(b/d/f/g/k/p/t/v/w)er *Cèr before -e; *Cerb before Vr/ui*/-ard; *Cr before -a/-o or other vowel-initial bigrams; unchanged before consonants or -ar
  • tigertigro/tigra/tigère; tiger + edtigrède (tiger cub); tiger + erivtigerberiv- (eradicating tigers); tiger + proximtigerproxim (near the tiger)
  • êlekterêlektère (electronic device); êlekter + izêlektrizar (electricify); êlekter + erivêlekterberiv- (removing electricity); êlekter + proximêlekterproxim (near the electric device)
2c i b ii *s(k/p/t)er *sCèr before -e; *sCerb before Vr/ui*/-ard; *sCr before -a/-o or other vowel-initial bigrams; unchanged before consonants, dual/plural suffixes, morphemes where (L >= 2) = s, or -ar sugaiskersugaiskerouse (two gynecologists) / sugaiskro/sugaiskra (male/female gynecologist) / sugaiskeros/sugaiskeras (male/female gynecologists); sugaiskerisim (we are gynecologists)
2c i b iii *(b/d/f/g/k/p/t/v/w)ẽr *Cẽrb before Vr/ui*/-ard; *Cr before -a/-o or other vowel-initial bigrams; unchanged before consonants or -ar ministẽrministẽre/ministro/ministra (minister); ministẽr + ẽrgimministẽrbẽrgim (because of the minster); ministẽr + administrad (at the minister's); ministẽr + proximministẽrproxim (near the minister)
2c ii -iēr -ièr before -e; otherwise 1c i a (Agent Nouns) neuviēr + orzneuviērgorz (reference work's); neuviērneuvière (reference work)
2c iii *oēr -oèr before -e; otherwise 1c i a moērmoère (fastening nut)
2c iv *uer See 1c i a duer + erijeduerberije (a romantic lover of...)


Pattern Morphemes Description Examples
3a *Cz If (L >= 2) = s in next root, then:
  • *CCu before consonant
  • *CCb (if *(lz/nz/rz)) or *CCem (if *tz) before vowel

If not, then *Cś before ch/h/k/m/n/p/s/t; unchanged otherwise

  • lanz + -isatlannbisat (they throw)
  • tokotz + esantokottemesane (that bobcat)
3b i a *az See /Z-final mutations mupazmupaut- (mutate)
3b i b i *aiz See /Z-final mutations haizhairt-/hairn- (pro-verb)
3b i b ii *auz See /Z-final mutations stauzstaurt-/staurn- (hunt)
3b ii a iz See /Z-final mutations (trsl) suonizsuoniōt- (unite)
3b ii b *iVz *Vshen when combined with -iēn; otherwise See /Z-final mutations poliez (police) → polieshen- (police officer)
3b iii a oz See /Z-final mutations (gen) ozoś-/öb-/ör- ('s)
3b iii b -ouz- See /Z-final mutations (cplx.du — Complex Dual) -ouz--ouś-/-öub-/-öur-
3b iii c i *oaz/*oiz See /Z-final mutations
  • roazroaś-/roant-/roarn- (rose)
  • moizmoiś-/moint-/moirn- (subtract/-)
3b iii c ii *oēz See /Z-final mutations poēzpoèze/poēlt-/poēlm- (poem/poetic)
3b iv a *uz See /Z-final mutations flanjuz + ozflanjuirtoz (orange's); chuz + isatchuētisat (they cook)
3b iv b -uez- See /Z-final mutations ( — Complex Plural) -uez--ueś-/-üeb-/-üer-
3b iv c *uVz See /Z-final mutations produizproduiś-/produint-/produirn- (produce a creative work)
3c i a *ez See /Z-final mutations lez (read) → lèze (a reading)/leś-/leit-/lein-
3c i b *eź See /Z-final mutations voreźevoreś-/voreit-/vorein- (dam)
3c ii -euz See /Z-final mutations (Full of...) flâmeuzflâmeuś-/flâmeurt-/flâmeurn- (full of fire/ablaze)
3c iii *eVz See /Z-final mutations aubeazaubeaś-/aubeart-/aubearn- (shrink/reduce)
4a *Cv *Cƒ before ch/f/s/t/z; hooked version of next letter before all other consonants except h/l/m/n/r/v; unchanged otherwise seroav (wagon) → seroave/seroaƒ- &c.
4b *vv -ƒƒ before next ch/s/t/z; -vvi before b/d/f/g/j/k/p/v; unchanged before next l, m, n, w, y, or vowel tüvv (leaving) → tüƒƒ-
4c i *(i/o/u)v See 4a fotov (take a photograph) → fotove (photography)/fotoƒ- &c.
4c ii a av abb after v in conjugations; otherwise 4a (perf — Perfect Verb) sauvar (save) → sauvabb- (has/have been saved)
4c ii b *(V/s)av See 4a boav (cattle) → boavé/boaƒ- &c.
4d i *ev *èv before -e; otherwise 4a bev (drink) → bève/beƒ- &c.
4d ii a *iev See 4a pliev (plant) → plieve/plieƒ- &c.
4d ii b *iēv *ièv before -e; otherwise 4c i diēv (god/idol) → diève/diēƒ- &c.
4d iii *uev See 4a deguev (sinkhole) → degueve/degueƒ- &c.
5a *Cf *Cfoṛ before b/d/g/k/p; *Cѵ before v; unchanged otherwise gorf + pringorfoṛprin (about a frog); gorf + veyrupgorѵveyrupe (frog's eye)
5b i *(a/o/u)f See 5a lof + prinlofoṛprin (about a hill); lof + veyloѵveyisim (we see a hill)
5b ii a -if See 5a (Characterised by...) droalif + veydroaliѵveyar (to see a comedy)
5b ii b -(a/e/o/u)if See 5a falaif + prinfalaifoṛprin (about a cliff); falaif + veyfalaiѵveyim (I see a cliff)
5c i *ef *èf before -e; otherwise 5a skabefskabèfe (bug); skabef + prinskabefoṛprin (about bugs); skabef + veyskabeѵveyim (I see bugs)
5c ii *ief See 5a
5c iii *uef See 5a


Pattern Morphemes Description Examples
6 *ch *choṛ before d/f/g/j/k/p/s/t/v; *choṇ before ch/z; *chob before ui*; unchanged otherwise. If neuter noun, add as termison zurechzureché (incurrence)
7a *Cj *Cjoṛ before b/ch/d/f/k/p/s/t/v; *Cjoṇ before ch/z; *Cǵ before g; unchanged otherwise graunjoṛprin (about grunge); graunǵgaflar (to influence the grunge movement)
7b *(a/i/o/u)j See 7a roj (curse) + zegrojoṇzeg (they say sbj curses); roj + gaundroǵgaund (cursing relative)
7c i *ej *èj before -e; otherwise 7a kaulejkaulèje (college)
7c ii *iej See 7a
7c iii *uej See 7a
8a *Cg *Cgoṛ before b/ch/d/f/p; *Cȷ́ before j; unchanged otherwise
  • suerg (worry) + ten (with) → suergten (worried)
  • youlang (genet) + prin (about) → youlangoṛprin (about genets)
  • lorg + zeglorgzeg (they say sbj searches)
8b *(a/i/o/u)g See 8a
8c i *eg *èg before -e; otherwise 8a
8c ii *ieg See 8a
8c iii *ueg See 8a


Pattern Morphemes Description Examples
9a *Ck *Ckoṛ before b/ch/f/g/j; *CCd before d; *CCp before p; *Cschen when combined with -iēn; unchanged otherwise bankbankoṛ-/bannd-/bannp-; banschen- (banker)
9b *sk *nns before next p; *nnz before z; *Ckoṛ before b/ch/d/f/g/j/v; *sschen when combined with -iēn; unchanged otherwise eask (left) → eanns-/eannz-/easkoṛ-
9c *(a/i/o/u)k *Vschen when combined with -iēn; otherwise 9b musikmusischen- (musician)
9d i *ek *èk before -e; otherwise 9c Kibek (Quebec) → Kibèke / Kibeschène (Quebecois)
9d ii emek ermek after m-; otherwise 9d i (instr) mermek (with my help)
9d iii *iek See 9c sliek (lick) → slieschène (licker)
9d iv *uek See 9c tuek (spear)
10a *(l/m/n/r)x *Cxoṛ before g/j/k; unchanged otherwise
10b *(a/i/o/u)x See 10a galaxê (galaxy) → galaxoṛkuem (...than/as the galaxy)
10c *ex *èx before -e; otherwise 10a sorexsorèxe (shrew)
11a *Cb *Cboṛ before ch/d/g/k; unchanged otherwise Shipembé (South Africa) → Shipemboṛkuem (...than/as South Africa)
11b *(a/i/o/u)b See 11a Shaganabe (Canada) → Shaganaboṛkuem (...than/as Canada)
11c i -eb *èb before -e; otherwise 11a (nasc — Nascent) plievèbe (sprout) → plieveboṛkuem (...than/as the sprout)
11c ii -ieb See 11a (erg) mieboṛkamoadat (is performed by me)
11c iii *ueb See 11a tuebe (mouse) → tueboṛkuem (...than/as the mouse)
12a i *Ch *Chi before ch; unchanged otherwise. If neuter noun, add as termison (Found mainly in foreign place names)
12a ii *(g/k)h *Chi before consonants; unchanged before vowels or h. If neuter noun, add as termison lakhlakhé
12a iii *sh *sh(oṛ/*m) before t; otherwise 12a i. If verb, add -ot (2.fam) or -amp (3) as termison Mạrakesh + toloadMạrakeshoṛtoload (at the front of Marrakesh); geish + toloadgeishamtoload (in front of the geisha)
12b *Vh See 12a i flohflohé (flea)

Umlaut (U)

Pattern Morpheme change Next consonant last letter turns/doubles into / precedes
U1a i a

-uit → -üi-
  • b/d/f/g/j/k/l/m/n/p/s/v/z; n before ch; otherwise 1a i a
  • Directly follows roots ending with b/d/f/g/k/p/t/v/x/z; other consonants take an epenthetic b
U2a ii a

nem- → në- b/d/f/h/j/l/n/r/s/t; r before ch; n before g/k; unchanged before vowels or m/p/v/w/y/z