Grammar:Umlaut morphemes

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Several dozen morphemes in Tovasala have their final consonants mutate into the next letter they come into contact with in compound formations. In doing so, they place umlauts on their first vowel, or the first unaccented one (if the first vowel carries an acute accent). Since ch cannot double, an n replaces the root's last letter where applicable.

Morpheme Mutated form Meaning Next letter
(Doubles/Turns into...)
b ch d f g j k l m n p r s t v z
bb nch dd ff gg jj kk ll mm nn pp rr ss tt vv zz
Regular
abod äbo- place, locale [1]
ad ä- at, to (dat/loc) [1] ★ (-ns) [2] ★ (-nz)
aibond äibon- only, lone, sole, unique
-aid- -äi- -ed/-d/-en/-t (pst.ptcp) ★ (-s/-r) ★ (-r) ★ (-r) ★ (-s) ★ (-s) ★ (-s) ★ (-s) ★ (-s) ★ (-s) ★ (-s) ★ (-r) ★ (-z)
-ant -än- -ing (prog)
*ard -är- 1,000,000x (with numbers); aug (with other roots) [1] ★ (-ns) ★ (-nz)
-asant -äsan- still -ing (cont)
ault äul- above, high (alt) ★ (-s) ★ (-p)
aup äu- toward(s) (all)
dijit dïji- digital, digi-
eand ëan- tool
emek ëme- with the help of, by means of (instr) ★ (-s)
gigal gïga- giga- [3]
hîdrol hîdrö- water, hydro- [3]
*id ï- abst ★ (-ng) ★ (-nj) ★ (-ns) ★ (-nz)
int ïn- in (ine)
jout jöu- sudden, unexpectedly
megal- mëga- mega- [3]
mîkrol mîkrö- micro- [3]
nand nän- as (ess)
nanol näno- nano- [3]
nem- në- un-, non- (neg)
nend nën- and, plus (+)
noard nöar- north (↑) ★ (-r) ★ (-r)
ond ön- without; -less (abe)
-orz -ör- 's, of... (gen.al) (orśch) (orśk) (orśm) (orśn) (orśp) (orśs) (orśt)
-ouz -öu- cplx.du (after ch/h/j/l/m/n/r/w/x/y) (ouśch) (ouśk) (ouśm) (ouśn) (ouśp) (ouśs) (ouśt)
-oz -ö- 's, of... (gen) (ośch) (ośk) (ośm) (ośn) (ośp) (ośs) (ośt)
pental pënta- peta- [3]
puind püin- chief, primary, head, arch-
*rel rë- re-, again [3] [4]
seb së- self, auto- (rflx)
suiv süi- next (in sequence) (suiɓb) (suiƒch) (suiɗd) (suiƒf) (suiɠg) (suiʝj) (suiƙk) (suiþp) (suiƒs) (suiƒt) (suiƒz)
tasiv täsi- accidentally, by accident, unintentionally (tasiɓb) (tasiƒch) (tasiɗd) (tasiƒf) (tasiɠg) (tasiʝj) (tasiƙk) (tasiþp) (tasiƒs) (tasiƒt) (tasiƒz)
telev tële- from distant source; tele- (téleɓb) (téleƒch) (téleɗd) (téleƒf) (téleɠg) (téleʝj) (téleƙk) (téleþp) (téleƒs) (téleƒt) (téleƒz)
tout töu- all, every, entire, complete, omni- ★ (-r) ★ (-r) ★ (-r) ★ (-r) ★ (-r) ★ (-r) ★ (-r) ★ (-r) ★ (-r)
tranz trän- through (an object or place), via (a communications medium) (prol) (tranśch) (tranśk) (tranśm) (tranśn) (tranśp) (tranśs) (vuiśt)
tug tü- out(side) (exe) ★ (-r)
-uez -üe- cplx.pl (after b/d/f/g/k/p/t/v/z) (ueśch) (ueśk) (ueśm) (ueśn) (ueśp) (ueśs) (ueśt)
-(b)uit -(b)üi- intf
vasit väsi- on purpose, deliberately, intentionally ★ (-n) ★ (-n)
voard vöar- true, real, fact, genuine ★ (-r) ★ (-r)
vuiz vüëi- previous (in sequence) (vuiśch) (vuiśk) (vuiśm) (vuiśn) (vuiśp) (vuiśs) (vuiśt)
Numbers
kaut käu- 4
kilog kïlo- 1000
kiloiz- kïloi- 1000x + n (kíloiśk) (kíloiśn) (kíloiśs) (kíloiśt)
seiz- sëi- 100x + n (seiśk) (seiśn)
sent sën- 100
siez sïe- 6 (sieśch) (sieśk) (sieśm) (sieśn) (sieśp) (sieśs) (sieśt)
trig trï- 3
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 If sandwiched between an "l"-final and an "l"-initial morpheme, a*d is left unmutated for clarity reasons, as in esilabodleyat (esil-abod-ley-at; it is a source law).
  2. Select cases.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 When preceded by another root with an l in it, this root's final l becomes ŕ (unless the next l is the first letter).
  4. Except in Relform-, which gives way to this language's nickname (Relformaide).

See also