Grammar:Word classes/Verbs/Conjugation examples

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1: sujar

Equivalents of this verb are extremely irregular in various natural languages. Its conjugation in Tovasala is an exception, along with the Esperanto equivalent esti and Ido esar.

It is ungrammatical in English to precede be's past participle, been, with any other form of that verb. The same applies in Tovasala, where sujar lacks passive conjugation. The participle is retained in the perfect form, sujavat (have/has been).

Sujar is only used to introduce subjects in encyclopedia/news articles and biographies.

Infinitive: sujar (to be [identified as])
Tovasala English
sujim sujisivim sujisim I am we both are we are
sujisiveum sujiseum
sujit sujisivit sujisit you are you both are you all are
sujut sujisivut sujisut
sujat sujisivat sujisat he/she/it is they both are they are
sujealb sujisivealb sujisealb sbj is/are
sujealbem sujisivealbem sujisealbem
Negative Present
naŕsujim naŕsujisivim naŕsujisim I am not we both are not we are not
naŕsujisiveum naŕsujiseum
naŕsujit naŕsujisivit naŕsujisit you are not you both are not you all are not
naŕsujut naŕsujisivut naŕsujisut
naŕsujat naŕsujisivat naŕsujisat he/she/it is not they both are not they are not
naŕsujealb naŕsujisivealb naŕsujisealb sbj is/are not
naŕsujealbem naŕsujisivealbem naŕsujisealbem
Recent Past
sujjuripim sujjuripisivim sujjuripisim I was recently we both recently were we recently were
sujjuripisiveum sujjuripiseum
sujjuripit sujjuripisivit sujjuripisit you were recently you both recently were you were all recently
sujjuriput sujjuripisivut sujjuripisut
sujjuripat sujjuripisivat sujjuripisat he/she/it was recently they were both recently they were recently
sujjuripealb sujjuripisivealb sujjuripisealb sbj was/were recently
sujjuripealbem sujjuripisivealbem sujjuripisealbem
Simple Past
sujjurim sujjurisivim sujjurisim I was we both were we were
sujjurisiveum sujjuriseum
sujjurit sujjurisivit sujjurisit you were you both were you all were
sujjurut sujjurisivut sujjurisut
sujjurat sujjurisivat sujjurisat he/she/it was they both were they were
sujjurealb sujjurisivealb sujjurisealb sbj was/were
sujjurealbem sujjurisivealbem sujjurisealbem
Discontinuous Past
sujjurelim sujjurelisivim sujjurelisim I was once we both once were we were once
sujjurelisiveum sujjureliseum
sujjurelit sujjurelisivit sujjurelisit you were once you both once were you all were once
sujjurelut sujjurelisivut sujjurelisut
sujjurelat sujjurelisivat sujjurelisat he/she/it was once they both once were they were once
sujjurelealb sujjurelisivealb sujjurelisealb sbj was/were once
sujjurelealbem sujjurelisivealbem sujjurelisealbem
sujjirim sujjirisivim sujjirisim I will be we will both be we will be
sujjirisiveum sujjiriseum
sujjirit sujjirisivit sujjirisit you will be you will both be you will all be
sujjirut sujjirisivut sujjirisut
sujjirat sujjirisivat sujjirisat he/she/it will be they will both be they will be
sujjirealb sujjirisivealb sujjirisealb sbj will be
sujjirealbem sujjirisivealbem sujjirisealbem
Future in the Past
sujjuvirim sujjuvirisivim sujjuvirisim I would be we would both be we would be
sujjuvirisiveum sujjuviriseum
sujjuvirit sujjuvirisivit sujjuvirisit you would be you would both be you all would be
sujjuvirut sujjuvirisivut sujjuvirisut
sujjuvirat sujjuvirisivat sujjuvirisat he/she/it would be they would both be they would be
sujjuvirealb sujjuvirisivealb sujjuvirisealb sbj would be
sujjuvirealbem sujjuvirisivealbem sujjuvirisealbem
sujaikim sujisivaikim sujisaikim ...that sbj be; sbj ought to/could/would/should be
sujisivaikeum sujisaikeum
sujaikit sujisivaikit sujisaikit
sujaikut sujisivaikut sujisaikut
sujaik sujisivaik sujisaik
sujaikealb sujisivaikealb sujisaikealb
sujaikealbem sujisivaikealbem sujisaikealbem
sujait! be!
sujjirait! let's (= let us) be!
Present Participle (Progressive Active)
sujant be being
Continuative Active
sujasant still be being
Past Participle
[1] been
sujaijim sujaijisivim sujaijisim I am about to be we are both about to be we are about to be
sujaijisiveum sujaijiseum
sujaijit sujaijisivit sujaijisit you are about to be you are both about to be you all are about to be
sujaijut sujaijisivut sujaijisut
sujaijat sujaijisivat sujaijisat he/she/it is about to be they are both about to be they are about to be
sujaijealb sujaijisivealb sujaijisealb sbj is/are about to be
sujaijealbem sujaijisivealbem sujaijisealbem
Passive Infinitive
Progressive Passive Infinitive
Past Participle Infinitive (Perfect Active)
sujavar to have been
Perfect Passive Infinitive
Verbal Noun
sujé (the) being/existing

2: mankar

This root conjugates in both the active and passive voices. The French counterpart, manger, possesses regular conjugation (albeit with a few spelling adjustments where applicable). The English past tense form (ate) and past participle (eaten) deviate from the regular eat(s)/eating.

Infinitive: mankar (to eat)
Tovasala English
mankim mankisivim mankisim I eat we both eat we eat
mankisiveum mankiseum
mankit mankisivit mankisit you eat you both eat you all eat
mankut mankisivut mankisut
mankat mankisivat mankisat he/she/it eats they both eat they eat
mankealb mankisivealb mankisealb sbj eat(s)
mankealbem mankisivealbem mankisealbem
Negative Present
naŕmankim naŕmankisivim naŕmankisim I do not eat we both do not eat we do not eat
naŕmankisiveum naŕmankiseum
naŕmankit naŕmankisivit naŕmankisit you do not eat you both do not eat you all do not eat
naŕmankut naŕmankisivut naŕmankisut
naŕmankat naŕmankisivat naŕmankisat he/she/it does not eat they both do not eat they do not eat
naŕmankealb naŕmankisivealb naŕmankisealb sbj do(es) not eat
naŕmankealbem naŕmankisivealbem naŕmankisealbem
Recent Past
mankluripim mankluripisivim mankluripisim I recently ate we both recently ate we recently ate
mankluripisiveum mankluripiseum
mankluripit mankluripisivit mankluripisit you recently ate you both recently ate you all recently ate
mankluriput mankluripisivut mankluripisut
mankluripat mankluripisivat mankluripisat he/she/it recently ate they both recently ate they recently ate
mankluripealb mankluripisivealb mankluripisealb sbj recently ate
mankluripealbem mankluripisivealbem mankluripisealbem
Simple Past
manklurim manklurisivim manklurisim I ate we both ate we ate
manklurisiveum mankluriseum
manklurit manklurisivit manklurisit you ate you both ate you all ate
manklurut manklurisivut manklurisut
manklurat manklurisivat manklurisat he/she/it ate they both ate they ate
manklurealb manklurisivealb manklurisealb sbj was/were
manklurealbem manklurisivealbem manklurisealbem
Discontinuous Past
manklurelim manklurelisivim manklurelisim I once ate we both once ate we once ate
manklurelisiveum manklureliseum
manklurelit manklurelisivit manklurelisit you once ate you both once ate you all once ate
manklurelut manklurelisivut manklurelisut
manklurelat manklurelisivat manklurelisat he/she/it once ate they both once ate they once ate
manklurelealb manklurelisivealb manklurelisealb sbj once ate
manklurelealbem manklurelisivealbem manklurelisealbem
manklirim manklirisivim manklirisim I will eat we will both eat we will eat
manklirisiveum mankliriseum
manklirit manklirisivit manklirisit you will eat you will both eat you will all eat
manklirut manklirisivut manklirisut
manklirat manklirisivat manklirisat he/she/it will eat they will both eat they will eat
manklirealb manklirisivealb manklirisealb sbj will eat
manklirealbem manklirisivealbem manklirisealbem
Future in the Past
mankluvirim mankluvirisivim mankluvirisim I would eat we would both eat we would eat
mankluvirisiveum mankluviriseum
mankluvirit mankluvirisivit mankluvirisit you would eat you would both eat you all would eat
mankluvirut mankluvirisivut mankluvirisut
mankluvirat mankluvirisivat mankluvirisat he/she/it would eat they would both eat they would eat
mankluvirealb mankluvirisivealb mankluvirisealb sbj would eat
mankluvirealbem mankluvirisivealbem mankluvirisealbem
mankaikim mankisivaikim mankisaikim ...that sbj eat; sbj ought to/could/would/should eat
mankisivaikeum mankisaikeum
mankaikit mankisivaikit mankisaikit
mankaikut mankisivaikut mankisaikut
mankaik mankisivaik mankisaik
mankaikealb mankisivaikealb mankisaikealb
mankaikealbem mankisivaikealbem mankisaikealbem
mankait! eat!
manklirait! let's (= let us) eat!
Present Participle (Progressive Active)
mankant be eating
Continuative Active
mankasant still be eating
Past Participle
mankaid eaten
mankaijim mankaijisivim mankaijisim I am about to eat we are both about to eat we are about to eat
mankaijisiveum mankaijiseum
mankaijit mankaijisivit mankaijisit you are about to eat you are both about to eat you all are about to eat
mankaijut mankaijisivut mankaijisut
mankaijat mankaijisivat mankaijisat he/she/it is about to eat they are both about to eat they are about to eat
mankaijealb mankaijisivealb mankaijisealb sbj is/are about to eat
mankaijealbem mankaijisivealbem mankaijisealbem
Passive Infinitive
mankaidar to be eaten
Progressive Passive Infinitive
mankaidantar to be being eaten
Past Participle Infinitive (Perfect Active)
mankavar to have eaten
Perfect Passive Infinitive
mankaidavar to have been eaten
Verbal Noun
manké (the) eating

3: foartar

Adjectives can also be used to form verbs (meaning "to be adj"), but do not conjugate in the passive voice (as explained in Example 1). The noun form describes something that possesses the attribute in question.

Infinitive: foartar (to be strong)
Tovasala English
foartim foartisivim foartisim I am strong we are both strong we are strong
foartisiveum foartiseum
foartot foartisivit foartisit you are strong you are both strong you all are strong
foartut foartisivut foartisut
foartat foartisivat foartisat he/she/it is strong they are both strong they are strong
foartealb foartisivealb foartisealb sbj is/are strong
foartealbem foartisivealbem foartisealbem
Negative Present
naŕfoartim naŕfoartisivim naŕfoartisim I am not strong we two are not strong we are not strong
naŕfoartisiveum naŕfoartiseum
naŕfoartot naŕfoartisivit naŕfoartisit you are not strong you two are not strong you all are not strong
naŕfoartut naŕfoartisivut naŕfoartisut
naŕfoartat naŕfoartisivat naŕfoartisat he/she/it is not strong the two are not strong they are not strong
naŕfoartealb naŕfoartisivealb naŕfoartisealb sbj is/are not strong
naŕfoartealbem naŕfoartisivealbem naŕfoartisealbem
Recent Past
foartturipim foartturipisivim foartturipisim I was recently strong we were both recently strong we were recently strong
foartturipisiveum foartturipiseum
foartturipit foartturipisivit foartturipisit you were recently strong you were both recently strong you were all recently strong
foartturiput foartturipisivut foartturipisut
foartturipat foartturipisivat foartturipisat he/she/it was recently strong they were both recently strong they were recently strong
foartturipealb foartturipisivealb foartturipisealb sbj was/were recently strong
foartturipealbem foartturipisivealbem foartturipisealbem
Simple Past
foartturim foartturisivim foartturisim I was strong we were both strong we were strong
foartturisiveum foartturiseum
foartturit foartturisivit foartturisit you were strong you were both strong you were all strong
foartturut foartturisivut foartturisut
foartturat foartturisivat foartturisat he/she/it was strong they were both strong they were strong
foartturealb foartturisivealb foartturisealb sbj was/were strong
foartturealbem foartturisivealbem foartturisealbem
Discontinuous Past
foartturelim foartturelisivim foartturelisim I was once strong we were both once strong we were once strong
foartturelisiveum foarttureliseum
foartturelit foartturelisivit foartturelisit you were once strong you two were once strong you were all once strong
foartturelut foartturelisivut foartturelisut
foartturelat foartturelisivat foartturelisat he/she/it was once strong they were both once strong they were once strong
foartturelealb foartturelisivealb foartturelisealb sbj was/were once strong
foartturelealbem foartturelisivealbem foartturelisealbem
foarttirim foarttirisivim foarttirisim I will be strong we will both be strong we will be strong
foarttirisiveum foarttiriseum
foarttirit foarttirisivit foarttirisit you will be strong you will both be strong you will all be strong
foarttirut foarttirisivut foarttirisut
foarttirat foarttirisivat foarttirisat he/she/it will be strong they will both be strong they will be strong
foarttirealb foarttirisivealb foarttirisealb sbj will be strong
foarttirealbem foarttirisivealbem foarttirisealbem
Future in the Past
foarttuvirim foarttuvirisivim foarttuvirisim I would be strong we would both be strong we would be strong
foarttuvirisiveum foarttuviriseum
foarttuvirit foarttuvirisivit foarttuvirisit you would be strong you would both be strong you all would be strong
foarttuvirut foarttuvirisivut foarttuvirisut
foarttuvirat foarttuvirisivat foarttuvirisat he/she/it would be strong they would both be strong they would be strong
foarttuvirealb foarttuvirisivealb foarttuvirisealb sbj would be strong
foarttuvirealbem foarttuvirisivealbem foarttuvirisealbem
foartaikim foartisivaikim foartisaikim ...that sbj be strong; sbj ought to/could/would/should be strong
foartisivaikeum foartisaikeum
foartaikit foartisivaikit foartisaikit
foartaikut foartisivaikut foartisaikut
foartaik foartisivaik foartisaik
foartaikealb foartisivaikealb foartisaikealb
foartaikealbem foartisivaikealbem foartisaikealbem
foartait! be strong!
foarttirait! let's (= let us) be strong!
Present Participle (Progressive Active)
foartant be being strong
Continuative Active
foartasant still being strong
Past Participle
been strong
foartaijim foartaijisivim foartaijisim I am about to be strong we are both about to be strong we are about to be strong
foartaijisiveum foartaijiseum
foartaijit foartaijisivit foartaijisit you are about to be strong you are both about to be strong you all are about to be strong
foartaijut foartaijisivut foartaijisut
foartaijat foartaijisivat foartaijisat he/she/it is about to be strong they are both about to be strong they are about to be strong
foartaijealb foartaijisivealb foartaijisealb sbj is/are about to be strong
foartaijealbem foartaijisivealbem foartaijisealbem
Passive Infinitive
Progressive Passive Infinitive
Past Participle Infinitive (Perfect Active)
foartavar to have been strong
Perfect Passive Infinitive
Adjectival Noun
foarté a strong thing; a fort

4: intar

Verbs can also be formed from adpositions; again, these forms do not conjugate in the passive voice. In the Kosinde dialect, the recent/simple/discontinuous past and future markers respectively become nuper-, per-, pler-, and fer- before this vowel-initial root.

Infinitive: intar (to be in)
Tovasala English
intim intisivim intisim I am in we are both in we are in
intisiveum intiseum
intot intisivit intisit you are in you are both in you are all in
intut intisivut intisut
intat intisivat intisat he/she/it is in they are both in they are in
intealb intisivealb intisealb sbj is/are in
intealbem intisivealbem intisealbem
Negative Present
nalintim nalintisivim nalintisim I am not in we two are not in we are not in
nalintisiveum nalintiseum
nalintot nalintisivit nalintisit you are not in you two are not in you all are not in
nalintut nalintisivut nalintisut
nalintat nalintisivat nalintisat he/she/it is not in the two are not in they are not in
nalintealb nalintisivealb nalintisealb sbj is/are not in
nalintealbem nalintisivealbem nalintisealbem
Recent Past
intturipim intturipisivim intturipisim I was recently in we were both recently in we were recently in
intturipisiveum intturipiseum
intturipit intturipisivit intturipisit you were recently in you two were recently in you were all recently in
intturiput intturipisivut intturipisut
intturipat intturipisivat intturipisat he/she/it was recently in they were both recently in they were recently in
intturipealb intturipisivealb intturipisealb sbj was/were recently in
intturipealbem intturipisivealbem intturipisealbem
Simple Past
intturim intturisivim intturisim I was in we were both in we were in
intturisiveum intturiseum
intturit intturisivit intturisit you were in you were both in you were all in
intturut intturisivut intturisut
intturat intturisivat intturisat he/she/it was in they were both in they were in
intturealb intturisivealb intturisealb sbj was/were in
intturealbem intturisivealbem intturisealbem
Discontinuous Past
intturelim intturelisivim intturelisim I was once in we were both once in we were once in
intturelisiveum inttureliseum
intturelit intturelisivit intturelisit you were once in you two were once in you were all once in
intturelut intturelisivut intturelisut
intturelat intturelisivat intturelisat he/she/it was once in they were both once in they were once in
intturelealb intturelisivealb intturelisealb sbj was/were once in
intturelealbem intturelisivealbem intturelisealbem
inttirim inttirisivim inttirisim I will be in we will both be in we will be in
inttirisiveum inttiriseum
inttirit inttirisivit inttirisit you will be in you will both be in you will all be in
inttirut inttirisivut inttirisut
inttirat inttirisivat inttirisat he/she/it will be in they will both be in they will be in
inttirealb inttirisivealb inttirisealb sbj will be in
inttirealbem inttirisivealbem inttirisealbem
Future in the Past
inttuvirim inttuvirisivim inttuvirisim I would be in we would both be in we would be in
inttuvirisiveum inttuviriseum
inttuvirit inttuvirisivit inttuvirisit you would be in you would both be in you all would be in
inttuvirut inttuvirisivut inttuvirisut
inttuvirat inttuvirisivat inttuvirisat he/she/it would be in they would both be in they would be in
inttuvirealb inttuvirisivealb inttuvirisealb sbj would be in
inttuvirealbem inttuvirisivealbem inttuvirisealbem
intaikim intisivaikim intisaikim ...that sbj be in; sbj ought to/could/would/should be in
intisivaikeum intisaikeum
intaikit intisivaikit intisaikit
intaikut intisivaikut intisaikut
intaik intisivaik intisaik
intaikealb intisivaikealb intisaikealb
intaikealbem intisivaikealbem intisaikealbem
intait! be in!
inttirait! let's (= let us) be in!
Present Participle (Progressive Active)
intant be being in
Continuative Active
intasant still being in
Past Participle
been in
intaijim intaijisivim intaijisim I am about to be in we are both about to be in we are about to be in
intaijisiveum intaijiseum
intaijit intaijisivit intaijisit you are about to be in you are both about to be in you all are about to be in
intaijut intaijisivut intaijisut
intaijat intaijisivat intaijisat he/she/it is about to be in they are both about to be in they are about to be in
intaijealb intaijisivealb intaijisealb sbj is/are about to be in
intaijealbem intaijisivealbem intaijisealbem
Passive Infinitive
Progressive Passive Infinitive
Past Participle Infinitive (Perfect Active)
intavar to have been in
Perfect Passive Infinitive
Adpositional Noun
inté something that is indoors

5: skribar

This is based on the rundown found in a late 19th-century book detailing the grammar of Manchu, an almost-extinct language of China.[4]

Paradigm of skribar (to write)
(Original verb: arambi)
Category Form Meaning
Manchu Tovasala
Imperative ara skribait! write!
Present Tense arambi skribim I write
Infinitive arame skribar to write
Preterite araha skriblurim I wrote
Future arara skriblirim I shall write
Conditional araci skribaik-mé should I write
Subjunctive Present araki skribaik-lumo may [that] he write
Past Gerund arafi skribavaisomu having written
Imperfect arambihe skribantturim I was writing
Indefinite Past arahabi skribavim I have written
Pluperfect arahabihe skribavlurim I had written
Past Conditional arahabici sif skribavlurim if I had written
Adversative aracibe molenbuit skribaiko although he may write
Concessive aracina skribait-lumo may he write
Optative arakini seulsif skribaiko would that he write
Gerund I arambime skribwobu while writing
Gerund II arambifi skribavaisomu having written
Gerund III aranggala skribprevu before writing
Passive arambumbi skribaidat it is written
Causative or Passive arambubumbi skribaidinzim I cause to be written
Verbal Noun arahangge, ararangge skribé, skribiène the writing, the writer
Indefinite arahale, ararale jiēnbuite skribat whoever writes
Adverbial araralame skribu in the manner of writing

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b *Sujaidar is ungrammatical in Tovasala.
  2. ^ *Sujaidantar is ungrammatical in Tovasala.
  3. ^ *Sujaidavar is ungrammatical in Tovasala.
  4. ^ von Möllendorff (1892):10.