Grammar:Word classes/Verbs/Conjugation models

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Depending on the last one or two root letters, all verbs in Tovasala fall into one of several conjugation models. In the following paradigms, verbal affixes are marked in green; deviations from those or the parent roots are bolded.

Type 1

This type is the most resistant to mutations, occurring after b, f, g, k, p, Vr, or v (except if uniliteral v- is involved). This is Tovasala's standard regular conjugation, as demonstrated by this example involving skribar (to write).

Tovasala English
Person Number
Singular Dual Plural
1st (Inclusive) skribim skribisivim skribisim I write we both write we write
1st (Exclusive) skribisiveum skribiseum
2nd (Familiar) skribit skribisivit skribisit you write you both write you all write
2nd (Honorable) skribut skribisivut skribisut
3rd skribat skribisivat skribisat he/she/it writes they both write they write
4th (Subject) skribealb skribisivealb skribisealb sbj write(s)
4th (Object) skribealbem skribisivealbem skribisealbem
Interrogative skribeak skribisiveak skribiseak what writes? which two write? which ones write?
Interrogative (Personal) skribeank skribisiveank skribiseank who writes? which two people write? which people write?
Relative skribeaj skribisiveaj skribiseaj who writes both of which write which write
Relative (Personal) skribeanj skribisiveanj skribiseanj who writes both of whom write who write
Tovasala English
Tense Stem
Recent Past skriblurip- sbj just wrote
Simple Past skriblur- sbj wrote
Discontinuous Past skriblurel- sbj used to write / once/formerly wrote
Distant Past skriblureng- sbj wrote long ago
Future skriblir- sbj will write
Future in the Past skribluvir- sbj would write

Type 2a

Nearly all verbal roots ending with l are found in Type 2a, such as tanular (to study). L mutates into ŕ before the fourth-person indicatives.

Tovasala English
Person Number
Singular Dual Plural
1st (Inclusive) tanulim tanulisivim tanulisim I study we both study we study
1st (Exclusive) tanulisiveum tanuliseum
2nd (Familiar) tanulit tanulisivit tanulisit you study you both study you all study
2nd (Honorable) tanulut tanulisivut tanulisut
3rd tanulat tanulisivat tanulisat he/she/it studies they both study they study
4th (Subject) tanuŕealb tanuŕisivealb tanuŕisealb sbj study/studies
4th (Object) tanuŕealbem tanuŕisivealbem tanuŕisealbem
Interrogative tanuleak tanulisiveak tanuliseak what studies? which two study? which ones study?
Interrogative (Personal) tanuleank tanulisiveank tanuliseank who studies? which two people study? which people study?
Relative tanuleaj tanulisiveaj tanuliseaj who studies both of which study which study
Relative (Personal) tanuleanj tanulisiveanj tanuliseanj who studies both of whom study who study
Tovasala English
Tense Stem
Recent Past tanullurip- sbj just studied
Simple Past tanullur- sbj studied
Discontinuous Past tanullurel- sbj used to study / once/formerly studied
Distant Past tanullureng- sbj studied long ago
Future tanullir- sbj will study
Future in the Past tanulluvir- sbj would study

Below is the paradigm for äpparlar (to speak to/talk to/call on the phone).

Tovasala English
Person Number
Singular Dual Plural
1st (Inclusive) äpparlim äpparlisivim äpparlisim I speak to someone we both speak to someone we speak to someone
1st (Exclusive) äpparlisiveum äpparliseum
2nd (Familiar) äpparlit äpparlisivit äpparlisit you speak to someone you both speak to someone you all speak to someone
2nd (Honorable) äpparlut äpparlisivut äpparlisut
3rd äpparlat äpparlisivat äpparlisat he/she/it speaks to someone they both speak to someone they speak to someone
4th (Subject) äpparŕealb äpparŕisivealb äpparŕisealb sbj speak(s) to someone
4th (Object) äpparŕealbem äpparŕisivealbem äpparŕisealbem
Interrogative äpparleak äpparlisiveak äpparliseak what speaks to someone? which two speak to someone? which ones speak to someone?
Interrogative (Personal) äpparleank äpparlisiveank äpparliseank who speaks to someone? which two people speak to someone? which people speak to someone?
Relative äpparleaj äpparlisiveaj äpparliseaj who speaks to someone both of which speak to someone which speak to someone
Relative (Personal) äpparleanj äpparlisiveanj äpparliseanj who speaks to someone both of whom speak to someone who speak to someone
Tovasala English
Tense Stem
Recent Past äpparllurip- sbj just spoke to someone
Simple Past äpparllur- sbj spoke to someone
Discontinuous Past äpparllurel- sbj used to spoke to someone / once/formerly spoke to someone
Distant Past äpparllureng- sbj spoke to someone long ago
Future äpparllir- sbj will speak to someone
Future in the Past äpparlluvir- sbj would speak to someone

Type 2b

Type 2b, which conjugates the same way as 2a, changes the final rVl to rVnn in the fourth person (as seen with spral-, "to wash").

Tovasala English
Person Number
Singular Dual Plural
1st (Inclusive) spralim spralisivim spralisim I wash we both wash we wash
1st (Exclusive) spralisiveum spraliseum
2nd (Familiar) spralit spralisivit spralisit you wash you both wash you all wash
2nd (Honorable) spralut spralisivut spralisut
3rd spralat spralisivat spralisat he/she/it washes they both wash they wash
4th (Subject) sprannealb sprannisivealb sprannisealb sbj wash(es)
4th (Object) sprannealbem sprannisivealbem sprannisealbem
Interrogative spraleak spralisiveak spraliseak what washes? which two wash? which ones wash?
Interrogative (Personal) spraleank spralisiveank spraliseank who washes? which two people wash? which people wash?
Relative spraleaj spralisiveaj spraliseaj who washes both of which wash which wash
Relative (Personal) spraleanj spralisiveanj spraliseanj who washes both of whom wash who wash
Tovasala English
Tense Stem
Recent Past sprallurip- sbj just washed
Simple Past sprallur- sbj washed
Discontinuous Past sprallurel- sbj used to wash / once/formerly washed
Distant Past sprallureng- sbj washed long ago
Future sprallir- sbj will wash
Future in the Past spralluvir- sbj would wash

Type 2c

Type 2c handles almost all verb roots ending in Cl. Indicatives conjugate like 2a, while the l in tense suffixes is dropped. Below is an example involving taglar (to prepare).

Tovasala English
Person Number
Singular Dual Plural
1st (Inclusive) taglim taglisivim taglisim I prepare we both prepare we prepare
1st (Exclusive) taglisiveum tagliseum
2nd (Familiar) taglit taglisivit taglisit you prepare you both prepare you all prepare
2nd (Honorable) taglut taglisivut taglisut
3rd taglat taglisivat taglisat he/she/it prepares they both prepare they prepare
4th (Subject) tagŕealb tagŕisivealb tagŕisealb sbj prepare(s)
4th (Object) tagŕealbem tagŕisivealbem tagŕisealbem
Interrogative tagleak taglisiveak tagliseak what prepares? which two prepare? which ones prepare?
Interrogative (Personal) tagleank taglisiveank tagliseank who prepares? which two people prepare? which people prepare?
Relative tagleaj taglisiveaj tagliseaj who prepares both of which prepare which prepare
Relative (Personal) tagleanj taglisiveanj tagliseanj who prepares both of whom prepare who prepare
Tovasala English
Tense Stem
Recent Past taglurip- sbj just prepared
Simple Past taglur- sbj prepared
Discontinuous Past taglurel- sbj used to prepare / once/formerly prepared
Distant Past taglureng- sbj prepared long ago
Future taglir- sbj will prepare
Future in the Past tagluvir- sbj would prepare

Type 2d

In verb roots of Type 2d, -ut morphs into -ump after sl to avoid misinterpretation of a certain undesirable word by English learners, and the tense markers follow 2b's pattern. A demonstration is shown below with vinjaslar (to impeach).

Tovasala English
Person Number
Singular Dual Plural
1st (Inclusive) vinjaslim vinjaslisivim vinjaslisim I impeach we both impeach we impeach
1st (Exclusive) vinjaslisiveum vinjasliseum
2nd (Familiar) vinjaslit vinjaslisivit vinjaslisit you impeach you both impeach you all impeach
2nd (Honorable) vinjaslump vinjaslisivut vinjaslisut
3rd vinjaslat vinjaslisivat vinjaslisat he/she/it impeaches they both impeach they impeach
4th (Subject) vinjasŕealb vinjasŕisivealb vinjasŕisealb sbj impeach(es)
4th (Object) vinjasŕealbem vinjasŕisivealbem vinjasŕisealbem
Interrogative vinjasleak vinjaslisiveak vinjasliseak what impeaches? which two impeach? which ones impeach?
Interrogative (Personal) vinjasleank vinjaslisiveank vinjasliseank who impeaches? which two people impeach? which people impeach?
Relative vinjasleaj vinjaslisiveaj vinjasliseaj who impeaches both of which impeach which impeach
Relative (Personal) vinjasleanj vinjaslisiveanj vinjasliseanj who impeaches both of whom impeach who impeach
Tovasala English
Tense Stem
Recent Past vinjaslurip- sbj just impeached
Simple Past vinjaslur- sbj impeached
Discontinuous Past vinjaslurel- sbj used to impeach / once/formerly impeached
Distant Past vinjaslureng- sbj impeached long ago
Future vinjaslir- sbj will impeach
Future in the Past vinjasluvir- sbj would impeach

Type 3

After verb roots ending in Cr (such as oudr-, "to become"), the l in tenses is dropped while the remainder transforms into uld for the past forms and ild for the future.

Tovasala English
Person Number
Singular Dual Plural
1st (Inclusive) oudrim oudrisivim oudrisim I become we both become we become
1st (Exclusive) oudrisiveum oudriseum
2nd (Familiar) oudrit oudrisivit oudrisit you become you both become you all become
2nd (Honorable) oudrut oudrisivut oudrisut
3rd oudrat oudrisivat oudrisat he/she/it becomes they both become they become
4th (Subject) oudrealb oudrisivealb oudrisealb sbj become(s)
4th (Object) oudrealbem oudrisivealbem oudrisealbem
Interrogative oudreak oudrisiveak oudriseak what becomes? which two become? which ones become?
Interrogative (Personal) oudreank oudrisiveank oudriseank who becomes? which two people become? which people become?
Relative oudreaj oudrisiveaj oudriseaj who becomes both of which become which become
Relative (Personal) oudreanj oudrisiveanj oudriseanj who becomes both of whom become who become
Tovasala English
Tense Stem
Recent Past oudruldip- sbj just became
Simple Past oudruld- sbj became
Discontinuous Past oudruldel- sbj used to become / once/formerly became
Distant Past oudruldeng- sbj became long ago
Future oudrild- sbj will become
Future in the Past oudrulddir- sbj would become

Type 4

The lone root of this type is the uniliteral v- (to go), whose tense stems behave like 2b and 2c. Conjugation of this verb is far more regular than its counterparts in various other languages.

Tovasala English
Person Number
Singular Dual Plural
1st (Inclusive) vim visivim visim I go we both go we go
1st (Exclusive) visiveum viseum
2nd (Familiar) vit visivit visit you go you both go you all go
2nd (Honorable) vut visivut visut
3rd vat visivat visat he/she/it goes they both go they go
4th (Subject) vealb visivealb visealb sbj go(es)
4th (Object) vealbem visivealbem visealbem
Interrogative veak visiveak viseak what goes? which two go? which ones go?
Interrogative (Personal) veank visiveank viseank who goes? which two people go? which people go?
Relative veaj visiveaj viseaj who goes both of which go which go
Relative (Personal) veanj visiveanj viseanj who goes both of whom go who go
Tovasala English
Tense Stem
Recent Past vurip- sbj just went
Simple Past vur- sbj went
Discontinuous Past vurel- sbj used to go / once/formerly went
Distant Past vureng- sbj went long ago
Future vir- sbj will go
Future in the Past vuvir- sbj would go

Type 5a

The exemplar of Type 5a is premar, "to begin/start". Here, the l in all tense suffixes morphs into m, the root's last letter, via a special form of "rendaku". 5a is the most prominent, with its verb stems ending in d, j, lm, Vm, rm, w, x, or y.

Tovasala English
Person Number
Singular Dual Plural
1st (Inclusive) premim premisivim premisim I begin we both begin we begin
1st (Exclusive) premisiveum premiseum
2nd (Familiar) premit premisivit premisit you begin you both begin you all begin
2nd (Honorable) premut premisivut premisut
3rd premat premisivat premisat he/she/it begins they both begin they begin
4th (Subject) premealb premisivealb premisealb sbj begin(s)
4th (Object) premealbem premisivealbem premisealbem
Interrogative premeak premisiveak premiseak what begins? which two begin? which ones begin?
Interrogative (Personal) premeank premisiveank premiseank who begins? which two people begin? which people begin?
Relative premeaj premisiveaj premiseaj who begins both of which begin which begin
Relative (Personal) premeanj premisiveanj premiseanj who begins both of whom begin who begin
Tovasala English
Tense Stem
Recent Past premmurip- sbj just began
Simple Past premmur- sbj began
Discontinuous Past premmurel- sbj used to begin / once/formerly began
Distant Past premmureng- sbj began long ago
Future premmir- sbj will begin
Future in the Past premmuvir- sbj would begin

Type 5b

Verb stems of type 5b (such as venar, to come) end with ln, Vn, or rn; an epenthetic g is placed before the personal interrogative/relative termisons.

Tovasala English
Person Number
Singular Dual Plural
1st (Inclusive) venim venisivim venisim I come we both come we come
1st (Exclusive) venisiveum veniseum
2nd (Familiar) venit venisivit venisit you come you both come you all come
2nd (Honorable) venut venisivut venisut
3rd venat venisivat venisat he/she/it comes they both come they come
4th (Subject) venealb venisivealb venisealb sbj come(s)
4th (Object) venealbem venisivealbem venisealbem
Interrogative veneak venisiveak veniseak what comes? which two come? which ones come?
Interrogative (Personal) vengeank venisiveank veniseank who comes? which two people come? which people come?
Relative veneaj venisiveaj veniseaj who comes both of which come which come
Relative (Personal) vengeanj venisiveanj veniseanj who comes both of whom come who come
Tovasala English
Tense Stem
Recent Past vennurip- sbj just came
Simple Past vennur- sbj came
Discontinuous Past vennurel- sbj used to come / once/formerly came
Distant Past vennureng- sbj came long ago
Future vennir- sbj will come
Future in the Past vennuvir- sbj would come

Type 6a

Roots ending with gm/gn belong in Type 6a, the sentient sign- (swan) among them, and conjugate like Type 4.

Type 6b

6b features roots ending with sm/sn, and also conjugates like Type 4; here, -ut morphs into -ulb to avoid conflicts with English profanities, as well as the type's variation of -lur. The following example, giesmar (to sing), comes from Latvian.

Tovasala English
Person Number
Singular Dual Plural
1st (Inclusive) giesmim giesmisivim giesmisim I sing we both sing we sing
1st (Exclusive) giesmisiveum giesmiseum
2nd (Familiar) giesmit giesmisivit giesmisit you sing you both sing you all sing
2nd (Honorable) giesmulb giesmisivut giesmisut
3rd giesmat giesmisivat giesmisat he/she/it sings they both sing they sing
4th (Subject) giesmealb giesmisivealb giesmisealb sbj sing(s)
4th (Object) giesmealbem giesmisivealbem giesmisealbem
Interrogative giesmeak giesmisiveak giesmiseak what sings? which two sing? which ones sing?
Interrogative (Personal) giesmeank giesmisiveank giesmiseank who sings? which two people sing? which people sing?
Relative giesmeaj giesmisiveaj giesmiseaj who sings both of which sing which sing
Relative (Personal) giesmeanj giesmisiveanj giesmiseanj who sings both of whom sing who sing
Tovasala English
Tense Stem
Recent Past giesmurip- sbj just sang
Simple Past giesmur- sbj sang
Discontinuous Past giesmurel- sbj used to sing / once/formerly sang
Distant Past giesmureng- sbj sang long ago
Future giesmir- sbj will sing
Future in the Past giesmuvir- sbj would sing

Type 7

Type 7 handles all roots ending in z, and follows the same tense-mutation pattern as the second; below is an example involving lanzar (to throw). (Z-final roots mutate before any adjacent ones with s; this verb assumes the resulting form of lanny-.)

Tovasala English
Person Number
Singular Dual Plural
1st (Inclusive) lanzim lannbisivim lannbisim I throw we both throw we throw
1st (Exclusive) lannbisiveum lannbiseum
2nd (Familiar) lanzit lannbisivit lannbisit you throw you both throw you all throw
2nd (Honorable) lanzut lannbisivut lannbisut
3rd lanzat lannbisivat lannbisat he/she/it throws they both throw they throw
4th (Subject) lanzealb lannbisivealb lannbisealb sbj throw(s)
4th (Object) lanzealbem lannbisivealbem lannbisealbem
Interrogative lanzeak lannbisiveak lannbiseak what throws? which two throw? which ones throw?
Interrogative (Personal) lanzeank lannbisiveank lannbiseank who throws? which two people throw? which people throw?
Relative lanzeaj lannbisiveaj lannbiseaj who throws both of which throw which throw
Relative (Personal) lanzeanj lannbisiveanj lannbiseanj who throws both of whom throw who throw
Tovasala English
Tense Stem
Recent Past lanzzurip- sbj just threw
Simple Past lanzzur- sbj threw
Discontinuous Past lanzzurel- sbj used to throw / once/formerly threw
Distant Past lanzzureng- sbj threw long ago
Future lanzzir- sbj will throw
Future in the Past lanzzuvir- sbj would throw

The root of addezar (to tell/say to someone) mutates into addeit- before morphemes with s.

Tovasala English
Person Number
Singular Dual Plural
1st (Inclusive) addezim addeitisivim addeitisim I tell someone we both tell someone we tell someone
1st (Exclusive) addeitisiveum addeitiseum
2nd (Familiar) addezit addeitisivit addeitisit you tell someone you both tell someone you all tell someone
2nd (Honorable) addezut addeitisivut addeitisut
3rd addezat addeitisivat addeitisat he/she/it tells someone they both tell someone they tell someone
4th (Subject) addezealb addeitisivealb addeitisealb sbj tell(s) someone
4th (Object) addezealbem addeitisivealbem addeitisealbem
Interrogative addezeak addeitisiveak addeitiseak what tells someone? which two tell someone? which ones tell someone?
Interrogative (Personal) addezeank addeitisiveank addeitiseank who tells someone? which two people tell someone? which people tell someone?
Relative addezeaj addeitisiveaj addeitiseaj who tells someone both of which tell someone which tell someone
Relative (Personal) addezeanj addeitisiveanj addeitiseanj who tells someone both of whom tell someone who tell someone
Tovasala English
Tense Stem
Recent Past addezzurip- sbj just told someone
Simple Past addezzur- sbj told someone
Discontinuous Past addezzurel- sbj used to told someone / once/formerly told someone
Distant Past addezzureng- sbj told someone long ago
Future addezzir- sbj will tell someone
Future in the Past addezzuvir- sbj would tell someone

Type 8

Type 8 handles roots ending in ch and t; it allows a marker to mutate for the same reasons as 2c (-it-ot). Below is a demonstration involving poartar (to carry) and aistar (to make/produce).

Tovasala English
Person Number
Singular Dual Plural
1st (Inclusive) poartim poartisivim poartisim I carry we both carry we carry
1st (Exclusive) poartisiveum poartiseum
2nd (Familiar) poartot poartisivit poartisit you carry you both carry you all carry
2nd (Honorable) poartut poartisivut poartisut
3rd poartat poartisivat poartisat he/she/it carries they both carry they carry
4th (Subject) poartealb poartisivealb poartisealb sbj carry/carries
4th (Object) poartealbem poartisivealbem poartisealbem
Interrogative poarteak poartisiveak poartiseak what carries? which two carry? which ones carry?
Interrogative (Personal) poarteank poartisiveank poartiseank who carries? which two people carry? which people carry?
Relative poarteaj poartisiveaj poartiseaj who carries both of which carry which carry
Relative (Personal) poarteanj poartisiveanj poartiseanj who carries both of whom carry who carry
Tovasala English
Tense Stem
Recent Past poartturip- sbj just carried
Simple Past poarttur- sbj carried
Discontinuous Past poartturel- sbj used to carry / once/formerly carried
Distant Past poarttureng- sbj carried long ago
Future poarttir- sbj will carry
Future in the Past poarttuvir- sbj would carry
Tovasala English
Person Number
Singular Dual Plural
1st (Inclusive) aistim aistisivim aistisim I make we both make we make
1st (Exclusive) aistisiveum aistiseum
2nd (Familiar) aistot aistisivit aistisit you make you both make you all make
2nd (Honorable) aistut aistisivut aistisut
3rd aistat aistisivat aistisat he/she/it makes they both make they make
4th (Subject) aistealb aistisivealb aistisealb sbj make(s)
4th (Object) aistealbem aistisivealbem aistisealbem
Interrogative aisteak aistisiveak aistiseak what makes? which two make? which ones make?
Interrogative (Personal) aisteank aistisiveank aistiseank who makes? which two people make? which people make?
Relative aisteaj aistisiveaj aistiseaj who makes both of which make which make
Relative (Personal) aisteanj aistisiveanj aistiseanj who makes both of whom make who make
Tovasala English
Tense Stem
Recent Past aistturip- sbj just made
Simple Past aisttur- sbj made
Discontinuous Past aistturel- sbj used to make / once/formerly made
Distant Past aisttureng- sbj made long ago
Future aisttir- sbj will make
Future in the Past aisttuvir- sbj would make

Another example in Type 8 is zurechar (to incur).

Tovasala English
Person Number
Singular Dual Plural
1st (Inclusive) zurechim zurechisivim zurechisim I incur we both incur we incur
1st (Exclusive) zurechisiveum zurechiseum
2nd (Familiar) zurechot zurechisivit zurechisit you incur you both incur you all incur
2nd (Honorable) zurechut zurechisivut zurechisut
3rd zurechat zurechisivat zurechisat he/she/it incurs they both incur they incur
4th (Subject) zurechealb zurechisivealb zurechisealb sbj incur(s)
4th (Object) zurechealbem zurechisivealbem zurechisealbem
Interrogative zurecheak zurechisiveak zurechiseak what incurs? which two incur? which ones incur?
Interrogative (Personal) zurecheank zurechisiveank zurechiseank who incurs? which two people incur? which people incur?
Relative zurecheaj zurechisiveaj zurechiseaj who incurs both of which incur which incur
Relative (Personal) zurecheanj zurechisiveanj zurechiseanj who incurs both of whom incur who incur
Tovasala English
Tense Stem
Recent Past zurechhurip- sbj just incurred
Simple Past zurechhur- sbj incurred
Discontinuous Past zurechhurel- sbj used to incur / once/formerly incurred
Distant Past zurechhureng- sbj incurred long ago
Future zurechhir- sbj will incur
Future in the Past zurechhuvir- sbj would incur