Grammar:Word formation/Examples

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◀ Word formation Grammar of Tovasala:
Word formation/Examples
Word classes ▶




Words in Tovasala change meanings based on the termison and/or prefix, as shown in this paradigm for otr- ("other/different"). As with most adjective-based roots, otr- employs all five uniliteral termisons—plus the verbal ones—in its simplest form. (It becomes ńotr- when placed after a vowel.)

With termisons
Grammatical form Termison Word Meaning
Noun Neuter -e otré another one
Masculine -o otro another one (masculine)
Feminine -a otra another one (feminine)
Adjective -i otri different
Adverb -u otru differently
Verb Infinitive -ar otrar to be different; to differ
Indicative[1] -at otrat sbj is different; sbj differs
Perfect -av-at otravat sbj has been different
Prospective -aij-at otraijat sbj is about to be different
Conditional / Subjunctive -aik otraik sbj ought to differ
Imperative -ait otrait Be different! Stand out!
Progressive -ant otrant sbj is differing
Continuative -asant otrasant sbj is still different
With prefixes
Grammatical form Prefix Word Meaning
Negation Verbal nal- nalotrat sbj is not different; sbj is the same
Nominal nem- nemotrat sbj is not among those who are different; sbj is homogeneous
Iterative rel- relotrat sbj is different again
Desiderative voul- voulotrat sbj wants to be different
Volitive soul- soulotrat sbj wishes to be different
Debitive (Necessitative) boul- boulotrat sbj needs to be different
With tense suffixes
Present otrat sbj is different; sbj differs
Recent Past -lurip otruldipat sbj was just different
Simple Past -lur otruldat sbj was different
Discontinuous Past -lurel otruldelat sbj used to be different
Distant Past -lureng otruldengat sbj was different long ago
Future -lir otrildat sbj will be different
Future in the Past -luvir otrulddirat sbj would be different


This next paradigm demonstrates the similar versatility of another adjectival root, ed- (young). (It becomes ńed- when placed after a vowel.)

Word Affix(es) Meaning
Word/Phrase Affix(es)
Basic words
ède[2] -e youngster, youth, youngling, child, kid, tyke neuter noun
edo -o boy masculine noun
eda -a girl feminine noun
edi -i young adjective
edu -u youngly (Rare) adverb
edar -ar to be young infinitive verb
Compound words
edausmé -ausm-e the younger comparative + neuter
edausmi -ausm-i younger comparative + adjective
edausome -ausom-e the youngest superlative + neuter
edausomi -ausom-i youngest superlative + adjective
edomisti -omist-i children's dedicated to + adjective
edifi -if-i youthful characterised by + adjective
edifu -if-u youthfully characterised by + adverb
edide[2] -id-e youth state/condition + neuter
ednandu -nand-u as a child, while young as... + adverb
edizar -iz-ar to make someone young turn/change entity into + infinitive verb
reledizar rel-R-iz-ar to rejuvenate again + young + turn/change entity into + infinitive verb
reledizière rel-R-iz-iēr-e the Fountain of Youth again + young + turn/change entity into + agent + neuter
odrède odr-R-e young offspring/progeny child + young + neuter
tuerède tuer-R-e cub, whelp, young creature creature + young + neuter
uvelède uvel-R-e young step-relative step- + young + neuter
oajanède oajan-R-e young god-relative god- + young + neuter
Vespuliēnèdes Vespul-īen-R-e-s "Kids in America" America + demonym + young + neuter + plural


Words in Tovasala can be formed from existing morphemes based on attribute, thus reducing the need for different roots when necessary. These charts, dealing with the verb root vey- ("see") and related veinz- (show)/veyrup- (eye), demonstrate the language's derivational versatility.

Word Affix(es) Meaning
Word Affix(es)
Verbs (with infinitive -ar)
veyar Ø see, watch, view Ø
veinzar -inz show, display, demonstrate cause something to/make something do
veyetar -et glance a little
veyardar -ard stare a lot
veyaidar -aid be seen; appear past participle
veyondar -ond be blind without
naŕveyar nal- not see/notice (something) verb negator
prevveyar prev- foresee, preview before
evuirveyar evuir- ignore, disregard avoid
adveyar ad- look at, admire at something/someone
äuvveyar aup- face (something/someone), look toward(s) toward(s)
sebveyar seb- look at oneself self
shoarveyar shoar- see each other, stare face-to-face each other
intäuvveyar int-äuvv- peer (at) in + towards (into)
tränvveyar tranz- scan through
wegveyar weg- shun off/away from
Nouns (with neuter -e)
vèye Ø sight (act of seeing) Ø
veyaide -aid sight (something seen) past participle
veyabilidé -abil-id vision able to... + state of
veyaine -aine insight the result of...
veyiène -iēn watcher, looker, seer someone who...
veyonide -ond-id blindness without + state of
veyubèle ubel- bad vision, poor eyesight bad
prevvèye prev- foresight, preview before
veyaurode -aurod lookout, vantage point, observatory place for...
veyäurffasine -aurd-fasin videotape, videocasette, VHS for purpose + tape
veyrupe -(u)rup eye body organ
veyeande -eand glasses tool
veyeandiène -eand-iēn optician tool + occupation
sebveyaide seb-R-aid reflection self + see + past participle
sebveyeande seb-R-eand mirror self + see + tool
veyyire -lir outlook future tense marker
Adjective/Adverb (with -i/-u)
veyi -i visual Ø
veyondi -ond-i blind without
veyu -u visually Ø
veyondu -ond-u blindly without
Word Affix(es) Meaning
Word Affix(es)
veinzar -ar show, display, demonstrate infinitive verb
veinzé -e show, demonstration neuter noun
Word Affix(es) Meaning
Word Affix(es)
Nouns (with neuter -e)
veyrupe Ø eye Ø
veyrupiène -iēn oculist, eye doctor occupation...
veyruposivaine -osiv-ain glaucoma, eye disease sick + resulting from
tuarenveyrupe tuaren- cataract fog
lounveyrupe loun- moon blindness, night blindness moon
dregimveyrupe dregim- dry eye dry
veyrupshoule -shoul sclera white


This chart for the inanimate verbal root lẽrn- (learn) highlights the affixational differences between Esperanto, a well-known constructed language, and Tovasala itself.

Affix(es) Word Meaning
Ø lern' lẽrn- Root
-i -ar lerni lẽrnar to learn
-ad -ant lernadi lẽrnantar " study
-eg -ard lernegi lẽrnardar " cram
-ig -inz lernigi lẽrnginzar " cause to learn
-iĝ -iz lerniĝi lẽrnizar " learn intuitively
-et lerneti lẽrnetar " dabble in learning
dis- -ubel dislerni lẽrnubelar " learn in a desultory manner
ek- -aubil eklerni lẽrnaubilar " begin to learn
el- shoum- ellerni shoumlẽrnar " learn thoroughly
mal- ver- mallerni verlẽrnar " unlearn
re- rel- relerni rellẽrnar " learn again
-ant -ant-(e/o) lernanto lẽrnante, lẽrnanto a pupil, a learner (neut./masc.)
-ant-in -ant-a lernantino lẽrnanta a pupil, a learner (fem.)
-ej-an -iēn-o lernejano lẽrmmbiēno a schoolboy
-ej-an-in -iēn-a lernejanino lẽrmmbiēna a schoolgirl
ge-R-ant-o-j -iēn-e-s gelernantoj lẽrmmbiènes pupils (masc. and fem.)
-ant-ar -ant-truz lernantaro lẽrnanttruze a class
-ej -aurod lernejo lẽrnaurode a school (EO); a learning institution (RFM)
-ej-et -aurod-et lernejeto lẽrnaurodète an elementary school (EO); a small learning institution (RFM)
-ej-ar -abod-truz lernejaro lẽrnäbottruze a university (EO); a cluster of learning institutions (RFM)
-ul -av-(e/o) lernulo lẽrnave, lẽrnavo a learned person, a learned man, a savant
-ul-in -av-a lernulino lẽrnava a learned woman, a "blue stocking"
-aĵ lernaĵo knowledge[3]
-il -eand lernilo lẽrngeande intelligence (EO); flashcard (RFM)
-ind -val lerninda lẽrnvali worth learning
-o -e lerno lẽrne act or action of learning
-ebl -aibil lernebla lẽrnaibili learnable
-ec -aid-id lerneco lẽrnaidide learnedness
-em -anfel lernema lẽrnanfeli studious
-er aurd-esim lernero lẽrnaurdesime a subject of a curriculum
-ar aurd-truz lernaro lẽrnäurttruze a curriculum
-a -i lerna lẽrni learned (EO); associated with acts of learning (RFM)
-e -u lerne lẽrnu learnedly (EO); in the manner of an act of learning (RFM)
-u -ait lernu! lẽrnait! learn!


This declension chart for the inanimate root oben- ("house"; ńoben- post-vowel) is another example of Tovasala's synthetic nature. Tovasala has an array of affixes and affixoids corresponding to more than 80 grammatical cases found in various natural and constructed languages (whether single or compound), as well as a handful conceived for Tovasala itself.

Whereas cases in various languages are placed after their host root, those in Tovasala act as postpositional mesoclitics between the root and termison. The intrafixes -ieb- and -iz-, plus the -u suffix (and the -i- in accusative pronouns), are the language's only bound case markers; -eun- and -e(s) mark topics and singularity/plurality respectively; and -ouz and -(p)uez- respectively represent a plural subject before case particles.

Case abbr. Suffix Derivation Meaning
Singular Dual Plural
Subject nom
-e obène obenouse obènes (the) house(s)
Topic -eune obengeune obenouseune obengeunes as for/speaking of the house(s)
Ergative erg -iebe obeniebe obenousiebe obeniebes done by the house(s) (passive agent)
Appositive[4] app -erije obenerije obenouserije obenerijes ...which is the house
Dative dat -ade obenade obenousade obenades (to) the house(s)
Partitive part -unète obengunète obenousunète obengunètes part of the house(s)
Vocative Familiar voc -té obenté obenousté obentés O house(s)
Formal -usté obenusté obenöutusté obentés O house(s)
Adverbial/Functive adv/fun -u obenu in the manner/way of a house; like a house
Genitive Inalienable gen -oz obenozi obenöutozi obenpüetozi (the) house's/houses'
Alienable -orz obenorzi obenöutorzi obenpüetorzi (the) house's/houses'
Proprietive Inalienable prop -zol obenzoli obenouzzoli obenpuezzoli ...with the house(s) (as part of someone's belongings);
owning the house(s)
Alienable -ten obenteni obenouśteni obenpueśteni ...with the house(s) temporarily, having houses
Ornative orn -abuam obenabuami obenouzabuami obenpuezabuami endowed/equipped with a house/houses,
provided a house/houses (by a donor)
Instrumental/Prolative/Vialis/Instructive instr
-emek obenemeku obenouzemeku obenpuezemeku with (the help of) the house(s), using the house(s) (for a task or purpose); by way of/via/through the house(s); house-wise
Utilitative utl -urum obenurumu obenouzurumu obenpuezurumu using the house (but not for any task or purpose)
Utilitive/Applicative/Purposive (Supine) util -aurd obenaurdi obenouzaurdi obenpuezardi for use in the house(s); (intended) for home use
Benefactive ben -omist obenomistu obenöutomistu obenpüetomistu for (the benefit of) the house(s), for the house's/houses' sake,
(dedicated) to the house(s)
Causal/Motivative[5] csl -ẽrgim
because of/thanks to the house(s)
Comitative/Sociative/Associative com -aseb obenasebu obenöutasebu obenpüetasbu (along) with the house(s)
Conjunctive cnj -auvek obenauveku obenouzauvek obenpuezauveku (along) with the house(s)
(as part of the entity/group)
Predicative prd -tegem obentegemu obenouśtegemu obenpueśtegemu depending/relying on a house/houses
Originative ogn -esil obenesili obenöutesili obenpüetesili (originating, coming) from the house(s) (of)
Egressive egr -äpprem obenäppremu obenouzäppremu obenpuezäppremu starting from the house(s) (in movement)
Initiative init -premad obenpremadu obenouśpremadu obenpueśpremadu starting from the house(s) (as the source)
Terminative term -uskem
up to the point of the house(s),
ending up at the house(s)
Locative loc -ad obenadu obenouzadu obenpuezadu at the house(s) (of)[6]
Lative lat -aup obenaupu obenouzaupu obenpuezaupu towards the house(s) (in position)
all -äuvv obenäuvvu obenouzäuvvu obenpuezäuvvu to(wards) the house(s) (in movement)
Orientative ori -toloap obentoloapu obenouśtoloapu obenpueśtoloapu facing the house(s)
Oppositive/Situative ops
-esreg obenesrège
house to house; houses facing/compared with each other
Cisative cis -tudelad obentudeladu obenouśtudeladu obenpueśtudeladu at the side of the house(s)[7]
Apudessive apud -proxim obenproximu obenouśproximu obenpueśproximu near/next to the house(s), by the house(s)
Apudlative aplt -proximad obenproximadu obenouśproximadu obenpueśproximadu at the vicinity of the house(s)
Apudallative apll -proximaup obenproximaupu obenouśproximaupu obenpueśproximaupu towards the vicinity of the house(s)
Pertingent pert -trilv obentrilvu obenouśtrilvu obenpueśtrilvu touching/against the surface of the house(s)
Adessive ade -iāk obeniāku obenouziāku obenpueziāku on the surface of the house(s)
Altessive alt -ault obenaultu obenouzaultu obenpuezaultu above the house(s)
Superessive supe -auload obenauloadu obenouzauloadu obenpuezauloadu atop the surface of the house(s); on the roof(s)
Superlative[8] supl -äulvv obenäulvvu obenouzaulvvu obenpuezäulvvu over the top of the house(s); over the roof(s)
Perlative I per -tranz obentranzu obenouśtranzu obenpueśtranzu through the house(s) (in movement)
II -korttranz obenkorttranzu obenouśkorttranzu obenpueśkorttranzu along the house(s)
Inessive I ine -int obengintu obenouzintu obenpuezintu in the house(s)
II -intad obengintadu obenouzintadu obenpuezintadu within the house(s), inside the house(s)
Illative ill -ïnvv obengïnvvu obenouzïnvvu obenpuezïnvvu into (in towards) the house(s)
Interessive/Intrative Dual inter -prolad obenproladu between the (two) houses
Plural -multintad obenmultintadu among the houses
Intertransitive Dual intrt -proltranz obenproltranzu in between the two houses
Plural -multtranz obenmulttranzu going amidst the houses
Contessive cont -multint obenmultintu among the houses, amidst the houses
Exessive exe -tug obentugu obenouśtugu obenpueśtugu outside the house(s) (in position)
Elative ela -tüvv obentüvvu obenouśtüvvu obenpueśtüvvu heading outside/out of the house(s) (in movement), leaving the house
Delative del -weg obenwegu obenouzwegu obenpuezwegu off (the surface of) the house(s)
Subessive sube -ulem obenulemu obenouzulemu obenpuezulemu below the surface of the house(s),
underneath the house(s)
Sublative subl -uload obenuloadu obenouzuloadu obenpuezuloadu at the bottom of the house(s); in the basement(s)
Immediate imd -änsüottem obengänsüottemu obenouzänsüottemu obenpuezänsüottemu first the house(s)
Precursive pcv -prev obenprevu obenouśprevu obenpueśprevu before the house(s)
Postcursive pos -aprev obenaprevu obenouzaprevu obenpuezaprevu after the house(s)
Abessive abe -ond obengondi obenouzondi obenpuezondi without the house(s); homeless
Privative priv -eriv obenerivu obenouzerivu obenpuezerivu removing/taking away/eradicating the house(s)
Exceptive exc -moin obenmoinu obenouśmoinu obenpueśmoinu except the house(s)
Selective sel -trusilsuod
obentrusilsuode obentrusiltouve obentrusiŕplũrịme[9] one of the houses, several of the houses
Inclusive incl -nend
including the house(s), the house(s) too/as well
Distributive dist -aivad obenaivadu obenouzaivadu obenpuezaivadu per house; per pair/group/set/cluster of houses
Exclusive excl -seul obenseulu obenouśseulu obenpueśseulu only the house(s); exclusive to the house(s)
Propositive pro -aubog obenaubogu obenouzaubogu obenpuezaubogu for the house(s) (in opinion); in support of/supporting the house(s); pro-house
Oppositional opp/anti -opoam obenopoamu obenouzopoamu obenpuezopoamu against the house(s) (in opinion); anti-house
Aversive/Evitative ave/evit -evuir obenevuiru obenouzevuiru obenpuezevuiru avoiding the house(s)
Contrastive crs -potal obenpotalu obenouśpotalu obenpueśpotalu instead of the house(s), rather than the house(s)
Transpositive tsp -uslen obenuslenu obenöutuslenu obenpüetuslenu on behalf of the house(s)
Concessive cnc -molen obenmolenu obenouśmolenu obenpueśmolenu despite/in spite of the house(s), the house(s) in spite, although a house/houses
Postulative ptl -sif obensifu obenouśsifu obenpueśsifu if the house(s), then...
Conversive cnv -nemsif obennemsifu obenouśnemsifu obenpueśnemsifu if not for the house(s), then...
Essive ess -nand obennandu obenouśnandu obenpueśnandu as a house/houses
Translative trsl -iz obenizu obenöutizu obenpüetizu changing into a house/houses, becoming a house/houses
Compositive cps -aisil obenaisili obenöutaisili obenpüetaisili made (out) of the house/houses
Semblative/Formal sembl
-oid obenoidi obenouzoidi obenpuezoidi like/resembling the house(s) (in appearance), in the form of the house(s)
Similative simil -ausik obenausiki obenöutausiki obenpüetausiki like the house(s) (in manner or habit)
Identical idt -aibem obenaibemi obenouzaibemi obenpuezaibemi the same as the house(s)
Comparative[10] cmpr
-kuem obenkuemu obenouśkuemu obenpueśkuemu ( than the house(s); (as ...) as the house(s)
Referential ref -prin obenprini obenouśprini obenpueśprini about the house(s); concerning the house(s)
Considerative csd -omil obenomilu obenouzomilu obenpuezomilu according to the house(s)

Tovasala also utilises two cases exclusive to time-based expressions and words for events:

  • Temporal (temp, -wob): kuindwobu (at five o'clock), sẽrtnevwob (at 9:00 p.m.), Nâymasinwobu (in July), Krismasinwobu (during the Christmas season), toakardwobu (during the concert).
  • Limitative (lmt, -maurad): kuingmauradu (by five o'clock), sẽrtnevmauradu (by 9:00 p.m.), tuaroyeminitmauradu (by your birthday), Paskelmauradu (by Easter), anovaubrimauradu (by the New Year).

In addition, a variation of the Essive—the Linguistic Essive (ess.lg, -nong)—denotes material written in a stated language:

Măndărĭnśnongi (in Mandarin), Nihaunnongi (in Japanese), Suahilinnongi (in Swahili), Euskạrnongi (in Basque), Anglieśnongi (in English).


While various natural languages give different terms to various animals (depending on age and gender), Tovasala uses one common root and various affixes to accomplish the same effect; this also applies with various species-associated compounds. Below is an example involving the Japanese-derived sentient root, nek- (cat).

Tovasala word English meaning
Masculine Feminine Neuter/Pan-gender Masculine Feminine Neuter/Pan-gender
neko neka neke tom queen cat
neketo neketa nekète small(-sized) cat
nekedo nekeda nekède kitten, young cat
nekebo nekeba nekèbe newborn/baby kitten
nekoido nekoida nekoide feline
nekoidedo nekoideda nekoidède feline cub, young feline
nekoidebo nekoideba nekoidèbe newborn/baby feline
grombneko grombneka grombnèke wild cat, feral cat
aupönsneko aupönsneka aupönsnèke stray cat
nekuomadu nekuamadu nekadu to the cat, at the cat
nekeduomadu nekeduamadu nekedadu to the kitten, at the kitten
nekuomaupu nekuamaupu nekaupu towards the cat
nekuomproximu nekuamproximu nekproximu near the cat, next to the cat
nekuomaultu nekuamaultu nekaultu above the cat
nekuomulemu nekuamulemu nekulemu below the cat's feet/paws
Associated terms
nekmankaurde cat food
nekmoakualbe litterbox


This chart serves to address and amend the derivational defects in Esperanto; esper-'s definition remains as "hope".

Word Meaning
espère hope (for)
esperi associated with hope
esperu in the manner/way of hope
esperiène one who hopes, a hopeful one; hoper
esperar to hope
esperat sbj hope(s)
esperait! hope!
esperant[11] sbj is hoping/continues to hope
esperanté[11] that which is hoping/continues to hope
esperanttauwe[11] someone who is hoping/continues to hope
esperaijat about to hope, going to hope
esperaije someone who is about to hope
esperaidi hoped (passive adjective)
esperaide that which is hoped for
espereuzi full of hope; hopeful
espereuzu hopefully
esperonde a desperate one
esperondi hopeless, desperate, despondent
esperondu hopelessly, desperately
esperonide despair (n), hopelessness, despondency
esperondar despair (v)
esperanfeli hope-prone
esperide state of hope
esperesiōde source of hope
espergeriemar to overhope
espergerivar to dash one's hopes
Espernovolte Esperanto (literally "language of hope")
Espernövolpparliène someone who speaks Esperanto
Espernövolnnẽrliène teacher of Esperanto
Espernövolglẽrmmbiène student of Esperanto
Espernongi in Esperanto
Espernongiziène Esperanto translator
Espernovoltuvenge Esperanto expert/professional
Espernövolssaguale Esperanto devotee/fan
Joalespère Good Hope


This next table compares forms in Kayardild, an extinct Aboriginal Australian language, with their Tovasala equivalents. (Based on Evans (2010):164.)

Root: ri- (east)
Kayardild Tovasala English
riya easte east
rilungka eastaupu to the east, eastward
riyananganda eastäppremu to the east of
rilumbanda eastesile easterner
riinda easttüvvant moving from the east
riliida eastäuvvasant heading ever eastward
riliji eastauperiemu far to the east
rinyinda easskuzobadi at the eastern extremity of
ringurrnga proltrannyeasti east across a geographical discontinuity
riinkirida parlaupeasttüvvänkkuzobadu at the boundary you meet moving from the east toward the point of speech
rimali eastätté hey you in the east!
riinmali easttüvvantté hey you coming from the east!
rilumali eastäuvvantté hey you going eastward!
rilumirdamirda eastoṛdugaungtenadu in the dugong grounds to the east
rilunganda eastesiŕsuflé easterly wind
rilurayaanda vuiśnochemöbeastägguersile previous night's camp in the east
rilijatha (seb)eastauproular turn (self) round to the east
rilijulutha eastäummouvar move something to the east
eastäuttueddhendoarmar sleep with one's head to the east
rimarutha eastäuvveyar look to the east
riinmarutha eastäppremveyar look from the east


Below is a comparison between Tovasala and Novial, an alternative to Esperanto. Novial was devised by Danish linguist Otto Jespersen in the late 1920s; this sample is taken from his 1928 work, An International Language, with variations of mari/fraul-/marry (and in the English version, related terms) marked in bold.[12]

Novial Tovasala English
Li pastoro ha mari Paul e Anna. Paul ha mari se a Anna. Les blid mari yer; dunke les es nun marit. Paul es Annan marito, e la es li marita de Paul. Anna esed charmanti kom marienda. After li mario li du marites departad a Paris por li mari-voyaje. Nus espera ke li mariteso sal es felisi. Pastorlo fraulinzavat Paulyo nend Anya. Paulyo fraulizavat auvek Anya. Frauloubruldisivat vuidemwobu; ńẽrgim nouradu frauloubrisivat. Paulyo sujat Anyozi fraulo, nend sujata Paulyozi fraula. Anya voluvantturat nand fraulaija. Aprev fraulfestile, fraullé äuvvlurisivat Parieze wob fraulvinbealbe. Esperisim fraulidile frollirat. The clergyman has married Paul and Anna. Paul has married Anna. They were married yesterday; thus they are now married. Paul is Anna's husband, and she is Paul's wife. Anna was charming as bride. After the wedding the married couple left for Paris on their wedding-trip. We hope the marriage (state of being married) will be happy.


In Tovasala, a phrase like "Although you really tried to make this play unsuccessful" can be rendered as the more analytic Molen pogirujjurit houlịmize der dulandesine, or the more morphologically complex Houlịmdulandesiniśpogirujjurinitmolenu. The first form is used in general speech and writing, while the latter is mainly confined to print demonstrations of the language's synthetic tendencies.

Morpheme breakdown
Morphemes Form Meaning Notes
houlịm Houlịm Unsuccessful, a failure Hawaiian
houlịm duland Houlịmduland- An unsuccessful stage play Tagalog dula(an)
houlịm duland esin Houlịmdulandesin- This unsuccessful stage play Demonstrative pronoun; Estonian/Finnish
houlịm duland esin iz Houlịmdulandesiniz- To render this stage play unsuccessful Translative suffix
houlịm duland esin iz pog Houlịmdulandesiniśpog- To try rendering this stage play unsuccessful Dutch pogen
houlịm duland esin iz pog iruj Houlịmdulandesiniśpogiruj- To strongly try rendering this play unsuccessful Emphatic marker; Marshallese
houlịm duland esin iz pog iruj lur Houlịmdulandesiniśpogirujjur- sbj strongly tried rendering this play unsuccessful Past tense suffix
houlịm duland esin iz pog iruj lur init Houlịmdulandesiniśpogirujjurinit- Your past serious attempt to make this play unsuccessful 2nd-person familiar inalienable possessive suffix
houlịm duland esin iz pog iruj lur init molen Houlịmdulandesiniśpogirujjurinitmolen- Although you really tried to make this play unsuccessful Concessive case suffix; Greek
houlịm duland esin iz pog iruj lur init molen u Houlịmdulandesiniśpogirujjurinitmolenu Although you really tried to make this play unsuccessful Adverb termison


  1. ^ Third-person singular.
  2. ^ a b Ède and edide are among Tovasala's very few palindromic words; a handful of palindromic roots also exist.
  3. ^ In Tovasala, "knowledge" translates to sabantide or sabaide (depending on the context).
  4. ^ Used in certain sentences with two or more subjects/objects, as well as constructs like Tara, ńobenerije der Scarlett... (Tara, (which is) Scarlett's house...); -eaj is the verbal-indicative counterpart.
  5. ^ See Haspelmath (2006):9.
  6. ^ Cf. French chez.
  7. ^ Several directional suffixoids substitute the generic tudel when necessary:
    • -eask (left) — obeneaskadu/obenöuteaskadu/obenpüeteaskadu (at the left side of the house)
    • -zusk (right) — obenzuskadu/obenouzzuskadu/obenpuezzuskadu (at the right side of the house)
    • -toload (front) — obentoloadu/obenouśtoloadu/obenpueśtoloadu (at the front side of the house)
    • -voload (back) — obenvoloadu/obenöuvvoloadu/obenpüevvoloadu (at the back side of the house)
    • -noard (north) — obennoaradu/obenouśnoaradu/obenpueśnoaradu (at the north side of the house)
    • -sud (south) — obensudadu/obenouśsudadu/obenpueśsudadu (at the south side of the house)
    • -east (east) — obeneastadu/obenöuteastad/obenpüeteastadu (at the east side of the house)
    • -west (left) — obenwestadu/obenöutwestadu/obenpüetwestadu (at the west side of the house)
  8. ^ This differs from -ausom, the superlative comparison suffixoid.
  9. ^ Plũrim- can be substituted by any of the other number roots, or compounds thereof: obentrusiltrige (three of the houses), obentrusildèye (ten of the houses), obentrusiŕnöalddeiśkuãrte (84 of the houses).
  10. ^ This differs from -ausm, the comparative comparison suffixoid.
  11. ^ a b c As Justin B. Rye jokes in "Onomastics", "If Esperanto participles were fully regular, the word esperanto would mean a temporary outbreak of hope, and Zamenhof's pen‐name would have been la Doktoro Esperantulo!"
  12. ^ As Jespersen also noted,
    "Ido has here the verb mariajar 'to marry' with the derivatives mariajo or mariajeso 'marriage,' mariajatulo 'married man,' mariajatino 'married woman,' with the variants mariajitulo, mariajitino; mariajo-festo 'wedding'; further, the independent words spozo, spozulo, spozino for husband and wife. - Occ has maritagie, marito, marita, for 'married couple' maritates, for wedding (eheschliessung) maritagie, maritantie, and for 'married state' (ehestand) matrimonie. Novial thus gets off cheaper than either of these languages."
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